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Related to Intensification: extensification, westward intensification


An operation that increases the value of the membership function of a fuzzy set if the value is equal to or greater than 0.5, and decreases it if it is less than 0.5.



in photography, the process of increasing the optical density of a photographic image, primarily for the correction of underexposed or underdeveloped negatives. Intensification is the opposite of reduction. It may be accomplished by the accumulation of a metal, such as mercury or silver, or of some opaque compound on the silver grains in an image, as well as by toning. Because of the attendant complexity, there is no practical intensification process for multilayer color materials.

In intensification, the metallic silver in an image is bleached with solutions of mercuric chloride, potassium bichromate, or other compound, and subsequently darkened in highly active developers, ammonia solutions, or other agents. Intensification results from reduction of the bleaching agents to finely dispersed metal powders (mercury from mercuric chloride) or difficultly soluble opaque compounds (Cr2O3 · CrO3 from potassium bichromate), which are precipitated on the metallic silver grains of the image to create increased optical density. On bleaching with copper bromide, darkening is effected by a silver nitrate solution as a source of additional metal, which is precipitated on the image. If intensification is achieved by toning, the negative usually turns brown. Furthermore, its effective photographic opacity increases as the emulsion absorbs blue light, to which positive photographic materials are most sensitive.

Intensification may be classified as proportional, subproportional, or superproportional. In proportional intensification the optical densities increase in proportion to their initial values, but very low densities show almost no increase. In subproportional intensification, low densities increase substantially more than average and high densities. In superproportional intensification, high densities increase more than small and average densities.


Tsyganov, M. N. Ustranenie defektov fotograficheskogo izobrazheniia. Moscow, 1957.
Mikulin, V. P. Fotograficheskii retsepturnyi spravochnik, 4th ed. Moscow, 1972.


References in periodicals archive ?
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SAIRLA~s research projects will generate new evidence and decision-making support tools to help decision makers create an enabling environment for poorer smallholder farmers, especially women and youth, to engage in Sustainable Agricultural Intensification.
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So just how achievable is sustainable intensification - especially in a country where Thanet Earth may present a useful blueprint, but mega-farms such as Nocton have yet to win public approval?
Summary: Algeria made significant improvements in its main macroeconomic indicators for 2011, supported by $ 157 billion of foreign reserves, which resulted in the intensification of public investment, experts said Thursday.
Since greater agri, damages by recent floods required war footing measures, these contact intensification at farmers doorstep by ZTBLs team of professionals and subject specialists in the wake of devastated floods will help the revival of agriculture sector through adoption of modern farm practices, it is anticipated that it would resultantly support the Governments commitment and Banks initiative for increasing the yield per acre productivity and farmers income.
The county will encourage intensification of the existing built-up area wherever possible with no specific target percentage, given that there are significant limitations on opportunities for intensification because of the lack of available sites and significant historical and heritage areas.
Another benefit of the ENVG is its compatibility with aiming lasers currently in use, allowing for a fully integrated system of thermal, laser and image intensification.
GS AgriFuels' business model is based on the manufacturing and sales of proprietary biodiesel equipment and the use of new technologies to produce biodiesel, synthetic diesel, and ethanol from non-traditional feedstocks, such as corn oil and cellulosic biomass through the utilization of several new proprietary technologies, including innovative desiccation, process intensification, gasification, catalytic, and carbon capture technologies, to enable the refining of many forms of biomass into clean fuels at Integrated Multi-Fuel ("IMF") production facilities.