Regardless of the group, the intercostals contained more type Ilx/b fibers and occupied a larger area than either type IIa or type I fibers (ANOVA main effects, p < 0.
First, we present novel analyses of the hypertrophic and myogenic responses to training in the parasternal intercostals and compare these findings to the diaphragm.
Functional gains in patients have been observed in conjunction with fiber hypertrophy and regeneration of the lower intercostals [12,32].
Consequently, progressive or sustained inspiratory loading may render the intercostals susceptible to fatigue or injury [52-53].
Additionally, single occlusions in anesthetized animals robustly facilitate the lower external intercostals to a greater extent than the diaphragm or parasternals  and thus may undergo an even greater relative muscular remodeling with ITTO.
th] intercostal nerve during supracostal access to the upper pole.
Risks, advantages, and complications of intercostal vs subcostal approach for percutaneous nephrolithotripsy.
Intercostal vessels and nerves are at risk for injury during supracostal percutaneous nephrostolithotomy.
Permaloc electrodes were implanted with a 16-gauge needle (Synapse Biomedical, Inc) in the diaphragm, abdominal, and upper-thorax intercostal muscles (two bilateral pairs in each muscle group) .
However, chest expansion during intercostal muscle stimulation was not observed without unwanted contraction of these muscles, and Permaloc electrodes were not used as part of the standard stimulation conditions if they caused contraction of these unwanted muscles before they contributed to the inhaled tidal volume.
The purpose of the combined respiratory muscle pacing was to assess whether adding intercostal and/or abdominal muscles would augment the tidal volumes elicited by diaphragmatic pacing alone.
In one animal, the four electrodes implanted in the intercostal muscles were inadvertently pulled just under the skin into the ventral portion of the thorax.