Consequently, progressive or sustained inspiratory loading may render the intercostals susceptible to fatigue or injury [52-53].
Additionally, single occlusions in anesthetized animals robustly facilitate the lower external intercostals to a greater extent than the diaphragm or parasternals  and thus may undergo an even greater relative muscular remodeling with ITTO.
Further, the additional fast to slow fiber shift and eMHC-positive fibers suggested differences in the loading and remodeling of the parasternal intercostals.
Since intramuscular tension is particularly high within intercostal muscle segments , we reasoned that these markers of myogenic activity could be present following ITTO.
The right third parasternal intercostal muscle was placed in saline-moistened gauze and chilled for 3-5 min [25-26], mounted with pins at resting length , and then embedded in mounting medium (Tissue-Tek[R] Compound, Sakura Finetek; Torrance, California) and quick-frozen with liquid nitrogen-chilled isopentane.
The purpose of the combined respiratory muscle pacing was to assess whether adding intercostal and/or abdominal muscles would augment the tidal volumes elicited by diaphragmatic pacing alone.
In one animal, the four electrodes implanted in the intercostal muscles were inadvertently pulled just under the skin into the ventral portion of the thorax.
Stimulating currents applied to the two effective electrodes were 5 mA (right third thoracic intercostal space) and 25 mA (left fourth thoracic intercostal space).
Thus, also stimulating external intercostal muscles or abdominal muscles is not necessary to maintain adequate alveolar ventilation in a nonexercising, paralyzed individual .