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see psychoanalysispsychoanalysis,
name given by Sigmund Freud to a system of interpretation and therapeutic treatment of psychological disorders. Psychoanalysis began after Freud studied (1885–86) with the French neurologist J. M.
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a method of preserving the structure of animal and plant cells and tissues through treatment with chemical and physical agents. Fixation is used to obtain medicinal preparations.

Physical techniques include drying and freezing at low temperatures in a vacuum (lyophilization). Specimens may be treated chemically with such reagents as formaldehyde, alcohol, acetone, and osmium tetroxide. Many reagents are used in combination with other substances, such as potassium bichromate, mercuric chloride, and picric acid; such fixatives are usually named after the researchers who proposed them, for example, Zenker’s and Maximow’s fixatives and Flemming’s, Carnoy’s, and Bouin’s solutions. The choice of technique depends on the properties and size of the specimen and the purpose of the study. For example, alcohol fixation is adequate to preserve nucleic acids, but enzyme activity is completely preserved only after lyophilization. Fixation in aldehydes is recommended for electron microscopy. Double fixation is used for better preservation of tissue, that is, primary fixation with an aldehyde fixative and a second fixation with osmium tetroxide.


Roskin, G. I., and L. B. Levinson. Mikroskopicheskaia tekhnika, 3rd ed. Moscow, 1957.
Rukovodstvo po tsitologii, vol. 1. Moscow-Leningrad, 1965.



A rigid habit developed as a consequence of repeated reinforcement, or of frustration.


1. Psychol
a. the act of fixating
b. (in psychoanalytical schools) a strong attachment of a person to another person or an object in early life
2. Chem
a. the conversion of nitrogen in the air into a compound, esp a fertilizer
b. the conversion of a free element into one of its compounds
3. the reduction of a substance from a volatile or fluid form to a nonvolatile or solid form
References in periodicals archive ?
A study has demonstrated that mandibular fractures that were hand-held', while bone-plated, had a lower mean number of outer glove perforations than fractures treated with temporary intermaxillary fixation (0.
While ideally, the results of such a study can be best validated by enrolling patients in the gold standard' of randomized clinical control trial and dividing patients with and without intraoperative intermaxillary fixation in the two groups, the ethical aspect for such a study would be difficult to justify.
Intermaxillary fixation following mandibular resection.
Autogenous blood injection in glenoid fossa with intermaxillary fixation for 15 days is asafe and effective treatment in cases of recurrent dislocation of TMJ.
Key Words: TMJ dislocation, autologous blood injection, Intermaxillary fixation.
The aim of this prospective study was to compare the postoperative outcome in 80 mandibular fractures patients, treated by open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) and intermaxillary fixation (IMF) at Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Unit, Khyber College of Dentistry, Peshawar from 10th February 2006 to 9th February 2007.