Since the route of Islam to the Chinese Muslim community has been through Persian-speaking communities, Persian served as an important language not only for direct borrowing but also as an intermediary language for borrowing the religious Arabic terminologies.
The Arabic and Persian loanwords in these languages are also given -u/-i endings and the researchers have traced the reason neither in the original source nor the intermediary languages, but instead in the recipient languages themselves (tot de Taal and Volkenkunde 2010) (17).
Therefore, in practice the elite members usually resort to English as an intermediary language, but they translate every document into all of the official languages.
Albeit using English as an intermediary language largely facilitates communication between the members of the European elite, the same thing does not apply in case of citizens: the constant translation of information and the related difficulties of passing on information pose serious challenges on the path of a full-value democratic participation.
Obviously, a solution in this situation could only be provided by recognizing English as an official intermediary language, yet such a decision seems hopelessly utopist against the backdrop of cultural and political realities currently dominating the Union, considering also the intention of further expansion.