7, having controlled for threats to internal validity
by executing a properly designed single-case design with implementation fidelity.
These results show that the scale behaved as expected and had internal validity
when administered to the population of PLHA.
A third means of strengthening the study's internal validity
involved the use of an expert independent researcher (Flick, 2006).
Given the simplicity of this design and its ability to control threats to internal validity
, it is surprising that it is not used more often (the Ferrell, 2006, and Luckner, 2006, studies did not identify one study using a regression discontinuity design).
A similar approach was used to assess the internal validity
of the measures utilized by respondents to limit cyber-attacks; again, the significant relatively high correlations shown in Table 26 indicate that internal validity
are grounded in maximizing the internal validity
of an SCRD and demonstrating efficacy through multiple replications of results with a participant.
We expect this overview to be of interest to researchers, manuscript reviewers, and grant reviewers seeking to improve the rigor and internal validity
of comparative effectiveness research studies using nonrandomized study designs.
All of these results consolidated the internal validity
of the HELP-Screener.
implies the researcher has conducted a reliable study where results hold within the study itself, while external validity is generally what the public as a whole is interested in: Can these results apply outside of the study itself, and what are the broader implications?
GS (2014) devote considerable space to describing the internal validity
of the RATE instrument and tout its many strengths in comparison with other instruments used in the Measures of Effective Teaching (MET) project (for a review of this research, see Kane, Kerr, & Pianta, 2014).
Finally, whilst baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients were similar, there were significant differences in some of the surgery factors, including duration of operation, which may have influenced the internal validity
of the results.
describes the degree to which alternative explanations can be ruled out.