International Dispute

Dispute, International

 

a disagreement that arises between states concerning their relations with one another and with other states.

Contemporary international law, which forbids the use of force or the threat of force in relations between states, requires that all international disputes be resolved only by peaceful means, on the basis of an accord between the disputing states. This principle is maintained by the UN Charter (art. 2, para. 3), the Pact of the Arab League (art. V), the Charter of the Organization of African Unity (art. 3), and the Declaration on the Principles of International Law Concerning Friendly Relations Among States in Accordance With the Charter of the UN (1970).

International law does not predetermine the precise peaceful means of resolving a specific dispute but allows the states to choose these means themselves. Article 33 of the UN Charter lists the following peaceful means for resolving international disputes: negotiation, inquiry, mediation, conciliation, arbitration, judicial settlement, and recourse to regional agencies or arrangements. Peaceful means of resolving international disputes also include various conciliatory procedures, including good offices and the creation of investigation and conciliation commissions. In contrast to direct negotiations, conciliatory procedures usually feature the participation of third states or international bodies, with the consent of the disputing states.

Disputes between states can also be resolved with the aid of international courts and arbitration bodies. International disputes today are resolved more and more often through international organizations, which resort to procedures provided for in their charters. In the UN, the peaceful resolution of disputes is handled primarily by the Security Council; the General Assembly and the International Court of Justice are sometimes called upon to resolve disputes.

n1 and a1 = a2 = 90°. The arrows in cases 1, 3, and 5 indicate the path of a light ray."" height="107" width="750"/>
Figure 1. Dispersing prisms: (1) Simple triangular prism with refracting angle α = 60°. (2) Cornu prism; the refracting angles α1 of the two right-angle prisms from which it is made are equal to 30°. (3) Pellin-Broca prism, which consists of two right-angle prisms with refracting angles α1 = 30° that are cemented to the faces of an isosceles (α1 = 45°) right-angle reflecting prism; the refractive indexes of all three prisms are the same (n1 = n2). If a ray of light impinges on a Pellin-Broca prism in such a way that the ray enters the reflecting prism at an angle close to the normal, the deviation of the ray from its original direction upon emerging from the last prism is about 90°. (4) Rutherford prism. The central prism, with the refracting angle α1 = 100°, is made of flint glass with a large refractive index n2, and the other two prisms are made of crown glass with a small refractive index n1; α1 = 21°. (5) Three-component Amici prism. The side prisms are made of crown glass, and the middle prism is made of flint glass; n2 > n1 and α1 = α2 = 90°. The arrows in cases 1, 3, and 5 indicate the path of a light ray.

References in periodicals archive ?
V&E's global International Dispute Resolution practice has a proven track record of providing strong commercial and legal advice and representation to clients under all major arbitration rules throughout Europe, Africa, the Middle East, India, Asia, Latin America and North America.
The project is being built along the Neelum River, making it part of an international dispute as India's National Hydroelectric Power Corp.
About Fried Frank's International Dispute Resolution Capabilities Fried Frank litigators in the US, Europe and Asia represent global corporations and financial institutions in their most challenging, complex and important matters.
International dispute resolution; cases and materials, 2d ed.
He said that Jammu and Kashmir is international dispute and not just Pakistan but international community expressed concerns over the issue.
and the Emerging Enterprise Center in Waltham, MA, we provide creative solutions and results-oriented advice in the areas of international dispute resolution; government strategies; bankruptcy, restructuring and workouts; corporate finance, mergers and acquisitions, and IPOs; labor and employment; litigation; environmental issues and land use; intellectual property; tax, trusts and estates; and white collar and business crimes.
Chris adds further breadth and depth to the UK portion of our highly-regarded litigation and international dispute resolution and arbitration practices," said Baker Botts Managing Partner Andrew M.
The agreement also states that the two parties shall regularly engage in mutual exchange of information that assist in the development of arbitration and international dispute resolution jurisprudence and in the improvement of their rules and policies.
ISLAMABAD -- The Jamaat-e-Islami (JI) of Indian Occupied Kashmir has said that Kashmir is an international dispute, which should be resolved by implementing the relevant UN resolutions.
Liam focuses on insurance disputes and he specialises in policy coverage analysis and domestic and international dispute resolution.
Nijegen, Norway), 13 contributions are arranged in sections on the evolution of international organizations and international governance, converging and diverging normative trends in the international community, and shifting patterns in international dispute settlement.
7, 2011 /PRNewswire-Asia/ -- For multinational companies and global industry groups, international dispute resolution in cross border deals is an integral part of good business practice.

Encyclopedia browser ?
Full browser ?