Interstate Commerce Commission

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Interstate Commerce Commission

(ICC), former independent agency of the U.S. government, established in 1887; it was charged with regulating the economics and services of specified carriers engaged in transportation between states. Surface transportation under the ICC's jurisdiction included railroads, trucking companies, bus lines, freight forwarders, water carriers, oil pipelines, transportation brokers, and express agencies.

The ICC, the first regulatory commission in U.S. history, was established as a result of mounting public indignation in the 1880s against railroad malpractices and abuses (see Granger movementGranger movement,
American agrarian movement taking its name from the National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry, an organization founded in 1867 by Oliver H. Kelley and six associates. Its local units were called granges and its members grangers.
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), but until President Theodore RooseveltRoosevelt, Theodore,
1858–1919, 26th President of the United States (1901–9), b. New York City. Early Life and Political Posts

Of a prosperous and distinguished family, Theodore Roosevelt was educated by private tutors and traveled widely.
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, the ICC's effectiveness was limited by the failure of Congress to give it enforcement power, by the Supreme Court's interpretation of its powers, and by the vague language of its enabling act. Beginning with the Hepburn Act (1906), the ICC's jurisdiction was gradually extended beyond railroads to all common carriers except airplanes by 1940. Its enforcement powers to set rates were also progressively extended, through statute and broadened Supreme Court interpretations of the commerce clause of the Constitution, as were its investigative powers for determining fair rates of return on which to base rates. In addition, the ICC was given the task of consolidating railroad systems and managing labor disputes in interstate transport. In the 1950s and 60s the ICC enforced U.S. Supreme Court rulings that required the desegregation of passenger terminal facilities.

The ICC's safety functions were transferred to the Dept. of Transportation when that department was created in 1966; the ICC retained its rate-making and regulatory functions. However, in consonance with the deregulatory movement, the ICC's powers over rates and routes in rails and trucking were curtailed in 1980 by the Staggers Rail Act and Motor Carriers Act. Most ICC control over interstate trucking was abandoned in 1994, and the agency was terminated at the end of 1995. Many of its remaining functions were transferred to the new National Surface Transportation Board.

References in periodicals archive ?
That was not nothing, and a handful of the dead were worth noticing: the Interstate Commerce Commission, the Bureau of Mines, the U.
In 1984, for instance, deregulators succeeded in abolishing the Civil Aviation Board, which oversaw the airlines, and scaled back the Interstate Commerce Commission, which regulated the railroads and trucking.
Nadel has testified on behalf of shippers, ocean carriers, rail carriers, ports, pilots, and carrier conferences in over a dozen cases before the Federal Maritime Commission, the Maritime Subsidy Board, the Interstate Commerce Commission, the Surface Transportation Board, and in arbitration proceedings.
is an irregular route, common and contract motor carrier authorized to transport general commodities throughout the continental United States and the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec, pursuant to operating authorities granted by the former Interstate Commerce Commission, various state and regulatory agencies and Canadian regulatory agencies.
Consumers never asked for an Interstate Commerce Commission to prevent new truckers from entering the business.
While still a freshman, Rayburn sponsored legislation giving the Interstate Commerce Commission the authority to approve all new transportation securities--a measure that brought Rayburn into conflict not only with the then-powerful railroads but also with President Woodrow Wilson.
Senate, and became a member of the Interstate Commerce Commission, later the Surface Transportation Board.
The $100-billion spending-cut package Budget Committee Chairman John Kasich issued in March would, among other things, defund the National Endowments for the Arts and Humanities and the Legal Services Corporation, privatize public broadcasting, and abolish the Interstate Commerce Commission.

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