Perforation

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perforation

[‚pər·fə′rā·shən]
(ordnance)
Passage of a missile completely through an object.
(science and technology)
Any hole made by boring, punching, or piercing.

Perforation

 

(1) In botany, an opening in the cell membrane of a vessel in vascular plants. Water passes freely through the perforations and into the vessels. The perforations may be on the lateral and transverse walls of the cells. If a perforation is single, it is called a simple perforation (in the vessels of oaks and herbs). Multiple perforations are arranged in parallel series (scalariform perforations), in an irregular network (reticulate perforations), or as a group of approximately circular holes (foraminate perforations). Ferns have scalariform perforations, ivies reticulate perforations, and ephedras foraminate perforations.

(2) In medicine, the penetration of the wall of a hollow or tubular organ, for example, the intestine.


Perforation

 

in medicine, an opening or hole in the wall of a cavitary or tubular organ, as a result of which the cavity of the organ communicates with surrounding cavities or tissues.

Perforation may be caused by intrusion of a foreign body from the lumen of an organ (for example, perforation of the esophagus by a swallowed bone) or externally (a penetrating knife or bullet wound). It may also be caused by disruption of all layers of an organ by a pathological process, for example, perforation of an ulcer or tumor of the stomach or intestine or perforation of the vermiform appendix or the gallbladder with gangrenous appendicitis or cholecystitis.

When there is a perforation, the contents of a hollow organ, by penetrating surrounding tissue (periesophageal or perirectal) or the abdominal cavity, cause development of a rapidly progressing purulent inflammatory process called mediastinitis, paraproctitis, or peritonitis. Treatment consists in emergency surgery.

References in periodicals archive ?
Our patient presents an unusual case of an otherwise healthy 25-year-old male with no underlying psychiatric disorder who presented with intestinal perforation due to chronic neglect of his severe constipation.
hongkongensis can be found in blood culture associated with gastrointestinal disease and may reflect intestinal perforation.
Necrotizing enterocolitis and spontaneous intestinal perforation.
vermicularis may cause appendicitis, intestinal obstruction, intestinal perforation, enterocolitis, hepatic infection, urinary tract infections, epididymitis, sialoadenitis, and salpingitis.
Reported complications have included severe enterocolitis involving the ileocecal region, appendicitis, small bowel gangrene, intestinal perforation, peritonitis, hepatic and splenic abscesses, chronic abscess formation in the inguinal region, and fatal septicemia.
For example, about 3 percent of very low birth weight infants will develop spontaneous intestinal perforation, and the risk is approximately twofold greater if they have been treated with indomethacin.
Heavy worm loads may lead to death due to intestinal perforation or marked malnutrition and anemia, as has been reported for infection caused by an echinostome species, Artyfechinostomum malayanum (under the name Artyfechinostomum mehrai), in India (1).
Early clinical data show that the ColonoSight(R) system is capable of reducing the risk of infection to both the patient and physician, while potentially reducing the risk of intestinal perforation to the patient.
The death certificate claimed intestinal perforation, the surgeon said that too many abortions meant 'she had virtually no insides leftSweet takes an unconventional approach in what he chooses to tell and not to tell about British film history.
Kuo's expertise convinced him that he could potentially use these alternative methods to help Karnstedt, who had by far the longest filter implant with the most severe intestinal perforation he had ever seen.
President Havel, had what doctors described as successful emergency surgery in Austria yesterday for an intestinal perforation.

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