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procedure,

in law, the rules that govern the obtaining of legal redress. This article deals only with civil procedure in Anglo-American law (for criminal procedure, see criminal lawcriminal law,
the branch of law that defines crimes, treats of their nature, and provides for their punishment. A tort is a civil wrong committed against an individual; a crime, on the other hand, is regarded as an offense committed against the public, even though only one
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). Except for evidenceevidence,
in law, material submitted to a judge or a judicial body to resolve disputed questions of fact. The rules discussed in this article were developed in England for use in jury trials.
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, procedure conventionally embraces all matters concerning legal actions that come to trial; thus, procedure is the means for enforcing the rights guaranteed by the substantive law.

Current Civil Procedure

A legal action, in its simplest form, is a proceeding of a plaintiff against a defendant from whom redress is sought. The plaintiff begins a lawsuit by filing a complaint, a written statement of his or her claim and the relief desired, with a court that has jurisdiction (authority to hear the case). The defendant is served a process (e.g., a summons) that notifies him or her of the suit and usually responds with an answer. Failure to respond ordinarily entitles the plaintiff to a judgment by default.

Today, liberal rules of pretrial discovery allow parties to a civil action to obtain information from other parties and their witnesses through depositions and other devices. Discovery (i.e., disclosure) is now used to ascertain the facts believed by the other side to exist, and to narrow the issues to be tried. At common lawcommon law,
system of law that prevails in England and in countries colonized by England. The name is derived from the medieval theory that the law administered by the king's courts represented the common custom of the realm, as opposed to the custom of local jurisdiction that
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, pleadings performed this function, and they were continued beyond the complaint and answer until an issue was agreed upon.

The issue is one of law if the defendant denies that the alleged acts are a violation of substantive law entitling the plaintiff to relief; it is one of fact if the defendant denies committing any of the alleged acts. The judge rules on an issue of law, and if the judge upholds the defendant the suit is dismissed. An issue of fact is resolved by the presentation of evidence to the juryjury,
body convened to make decisions of fact in legal proceedings. Development of the Modern Jury

Historians do not agree on the origin of the English jury.
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, or, in cases tried without a jury, by the judge. After the jury has delivered a verdict on the factual issue, the judge renders a judgmentjudgment,
decision of a court of law respecting the issues before it. The term ordinarily is not applied to the decree (order) of courts of equity. The outstanding characteristic of a legal judgment, in contrast to an equitable decree, is its finality and fixity; thus, except
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, which in most (but by no means all) instances upholds the verdict. At this point the case is closed (unless the losing party prosecutes an appealappeal,
in law, hearing by a superior court to consider correcting or reversing the judgment of an inferior court, because of errors allegedly committed by the inferior court.
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), and the plaintiff, if having won, proceeds to execution of the judgment.

Evolution of Procedural Law

Current procedural law has had a long historical evolution. The early common law allowed an action to be brought only if it closely conformed to a writwrit,
in law, written order issued in the name of the sovereign or the state in connection with a judicial or an administrative proceeding. Usually the writ requires the person to whom the command is issued to report at a fixed time (the return day) with proof of compliance or a
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. Rigorous enforcement of the rule "no writ, no right," and the small number of available writs acted to deny relief even in meritorious cases and stimulated the growth of equityequity,
principles of justice originally developed by the English chancellor. In Anglo-American jurisprudence equitable principles and remedies are distinguished from the older system that the common law courts evolved.
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, which, in its early days, gave redress generously.

By the 19th cent., however, the technical intricacy of equity and law procedure and the tendency to make cases hinge on procedural details rather than on substantive rights made reform imperative. The way was led by the New York code of civil procedure of 1848 (largely the work of David Dudley FieldField, David Dudley,
1805–94, American lawyer and law reformer, b. Haddam, Conn.; brother of Cyrus W. Field and Stephen J. Field. He was graduated from Williams (1825), studied law in Albany and New York City, was admitted to the bar in 1828, and soon had a large practice
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), which abolished the distinction between law and equity (thereby effecting great simplification) and established the cause of action as the procedural cornerstone. A similar reform was accomplished in Great Britain by the Judicature Acts of 1875. Today the procedure of most American jurisdictions is based on codes (like that of New York) rather than on common law and equity, although the influence of these separate categories is still frequently discernible.

Bibliography

See J. Michael, The Elements of Legal Controversy (1948); P. Carrington, Civil Procedure (1969).

procedure

[prə′sē·jər]
(computer science)
A sequence of actions (or computer instructions) which collectively accomplish some desired task.
In particular, a subroutine that causes an effect external to itself.

procedure

A series of predetermined maneuvers for the orderly transfer of an aircraft under instrument flight conditions from the beginning of the initial approach to a landing or to a point from which a landing may be made visually or the missed approach procedure is initiated.

procedure

1. the established mode or form of conducting the business of a legislature, the enforcement of a legal right, etc.
2. Computing another name for subroutine

procedure

procedure

(1) Manual procedures are human tasks.

(2) Machine procedures are lists of programs or operating system functions to be executed. A mainframe uses job control language (JCL). Unix systems use shell scripts. Windows machines use batch files.

(3) In programming, a procedure is another term for a subroutine or function.
References in periodicals archive ?
However, both the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists and the British HIV Association recommend an undetectable maternal viral load at the time of the invasive procedure.
Several complications may occur with invasive procedures, and as part of pre-procedure counselling the woman/couple should be made aware of the risk of procedure-related complications.
The X STOP provides a new option for patients who have not received relief through therapeutic treatments and are unable or unwilling to have invasive procedures such as fusion or laminectomy.
11,12) There are no data available to demonstrate a viral load threshold below which HIV transmission is unlikely to occur following an antenatal invasive procedure.
When people were asked in a Newsweek poll what they would do if their health care workers were HIV positive, 15 percent would continue treatment but the health care worker would have to use stringent protective measures, 13 percent would continue treatment but would exclude surgery and other invasive procedures, and 65 percent would discontinue all treatment with that person.
He continued unrestricted practice as an obstetrician/gynecologist, who in the normal course of duty would have performed some invasive procedures involving women and newborn children.
As a result, many more patients than before will now be able to benefit from Gamma Knife surgery instead of more risky and invasive procedures and we are proud to partner with The London Gamma Knife Centre in this quest", commented Olof Sanden, Vice President and head of Elekta's market region Europe.
The trend in prenatal diagnostics is moving away from invasive procedures, which reveal genetic abnormalities but can harm the mother and the fetus, toward noninvasive procedures.
market, but reimbursement changes in 1992 are expected to lead to a significant increase in the number of minimally invasive procedures performed in Japan.
Ethicon Endo-Surgery, a subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson, and The Surgical Institute for Minimally Invasive Procedures at St.
a medical device company focused on developing minimally invasive procedures for the treatment of lower back pain, announced today that its ground-breaking AxiaLIF[TM] product was awarded "The Most Promising New Product Award" at the 13th Annual Phoenix Conference, a medical device and diagnostics conference for chief executive officers.
With these products, ArthroCare targets a multi-billion dollar market opportunity across several medical specialties, significantly improving existing surgical procedures and enabling new, minimally invasive procedures.

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