Therefore, if the gel acquires a tiny crack as it stretches, the polyacrylamide grid helps to spread the pulling force over a large area, tugging on the alginate's ionic bonds
and unzipping them here and there.
In ionic bonds
, donor atoms such as sodium tend to lose electrons easily while acceptor atoms such as chlorine tend to acquire additional electrons.
Since cosmetic formulas contain a multitude of ingredients that may either interfere with the bimodal polymer's ability to form ionic bonds
or plastisize the resultant film, initial expectations were that GBE readings for the formulated controls would be less than those of the diluted polymer.
The bridge may also include highly ionic bonds
(metal salts) or other bonds with weaker dissociation energies.
In the early 1970s, Holliday (1, 2) defined an ionic polymer as a polymer, either organic or inorganic, that contains both covalent and ionic bonds
in its chain or network structure.
FiberHance bm solution is a new patent pending chemistry to be included in the arsenal of ingredients for hair strengthening, evolving from glucose-based chemistry and has a unique multifaceted mode of action that penetrates deep into the cortex to create new hydrogen and ionic bonds
which support the damaged internal keratin structure and strengthen and provide manageability back to the hair.
One of the primary reasons for including carboxylic acid functionality is to provide a reactive site that is useful in forming a network of ionic bonds
to itself and to substrates.
Natural nacre also benefits from so-called sacrificial ionic bonds
between proteins, which break under stress but can reform.