Muhammad Iqbal

(redirected from Iqbal, Muhammad)

Iqbal, Muhammad

(məhăm`ĭd ĭkhbäl`), 1877–1938, Indian Muslim poet, philosopher, and political leader. He studied at Government College, Lahore, Cambridge, and the Univ. of Munich, and then he taught philosophy at Government College and practiced law. He was elected (1927) to the Punjab provincial legislature and served (1930) as president of the Muslim LeagueMuslim League,
political organization of India and Pakistan, founded 1906 as the All-India Muslim League by Aga Khan III. Its original purpose was to safeguard the political rights of Muslims in India.
..... Click the link for more information.
. An advocate initially of a pan-Islamic movement that would transcend national boundaries, he became a supporter of an independent homeland for India's Muslims and aligned himself with Muhammad Ali JinnahJinnah, Muhammad Ali
, 1876–1948, founder of Pakistan, b. Karachi. After his admission to the bar in England, he returned to India to practice law. Early in his career he was a fervent supporter of the Indian National Congress and an advocate of Hindu-Muslim unity.
..... Click the link for more information.
. He is regarded by many as the spiritual founder of Pakistan, and the anniversary of his death (Apr. 21) is a national holiday. Iqbal was the foremost Muslim thinker of his period, and in his many volumes of poetry (written in Urdu and Persian) and essays, he urged a regeneration of Islam through the love of God and the active development of the self. He was a firm believer in freedom and the creative force that freedom can exert on men. He was knighted in 1922. His works include The Secrets of the Self (1915, tr. 1940), and Javid-nama (1934, tr. 1966).

Bibliography

See biographical studies by A. A. Beg (1961), A. Schimmel (1963), H. Malik, ed. (1971), and S. M. Burney (1987).

Iqbal, Muhammad

 

Born Feb. 22,1873 or 1877, in Sial-kot, Punjab; died Apr. 21, 1938, in Lahore. Hindustani poet, philosopher, and public figure.

Iqbal studied in Lahore and then in Britain and Germany. He began publishing his works in the late 1890’s. He addressed himself to the Muslims not only of India but of the entire East—for instance, his narrative poems in Persian The Secrets of the Self (1915), The Mysteries of Selflessness (1918), The Message of the East (1923), and The Book ofJavid (1932). In addition to a collection of early verses in Urdu, The Caravan Bell (1924), Iqbal published the collections Gabriel’s Wing (1935), The Staff of Moses (1936), and The Gifts of Gedzhaz (1938), in which he celebrated man’s creative activity and called for a restructuring of life. Iqbal’s creative work is permeated with humanism and patriotism. Nevertheless, his philosophical and sociopolitical opinions are marked by a certain contradictory quality. While criticizing the capitalistic system, Iqbal at the same time defended private property and individualism.

Iqbal welcomed the October Revolution and had a sympathetic attitude toward the ideas of socialism (his narrative poem Lenin), but he was opposed to “communistic atheism.” In 1930, Iqbal declared himself in favor of the future creation of a Muslim state in northwest India to be included within an independent Indian federation. This declaration led the advocates of the formation of Pakistan to consider Iqbal an originator of their movement.

WORKS

Zvon karavannogo kolokol’chika. Moscow, 1964. (Translated from Urdu and Persian.)

REFERENCES

Anikeev, N. P. Vydaiushchiisia myslitel’i poet Mukhammad Ikbal. Moscow, 1959.
Gordon-Polonskaia, L. R. Musul’manskie techeniiav obshchestvennoi mysli Indii i Pakistana. Moscow, 1963. Chapter 7.
Prigarina, N. I. Poeziia Mukhammada Ikbala (1900–1924gg.).Moscow, 1972.
Ghani, A., and K. Ilahi. A Bibliography of Iqbal. Lahore, 1959.

G. A. ZOGRAF and L. I. IUREVICH

References in periodicals archive ?
The members of the Sindh police whose airport security passes were cancelled include Rao Anwar, DIG Arif Hanif, SP Najeeb Khan, SP Chaudhry Saifullah, DSP Airport (on protocol duty) Khalid Mehmood, SHO airport police station Faisal Latif Malik, Sub-Inspector Sarfaraz, ASI Abdul Ghaffar, Constable Muhamamd Munir, Mazhar Iqbal, Muhammad Shehzad, Waqar Hussain and Malik Ibrahim.
attached with DMA; Cleaners including Ashraf Masih, Muhammad Siddique, Zafar Iqbal, Muhammad Bashir, Muhammad Shahzad, Muhammad Ramzan, Awais Rehman, Muhammad Adrees, Salamat Masih, Arif Masih, Imran Jalal, Khalid Mehmood, Muhammad Sharafat, Zewardad, Qamar Abbas, Tauqeer Balal, Younis Masih, Abdul Qadus, Aneel Masih, Inderyas, Khalid Masih, Boota Masih and driver Sagheer Ahmed and Security Guard Saboor working in different formations.
Among others, Senior Vice President HCSTSI Sikandar Ali Rajput, Vice President Doulat Ram Lohana, Nadeem Ahmed Siddiqui, Altaf Memon, Rameezuddin Ahmed, Masroor Iqbal, Muhammad Sohail Memon and Altaf Bohar also attended the session.
Syed Rafaqat Hussain Bokhari, Shehbaz Mahmood, Syed Ali Haider, Khalid Mehmood Malik have been elected for the posts of joint secretary, finance secretary and auditor while Abdul Ateeq, Shoaib Iqbal, Muhammad Athar, Qazi Muhammad Sohail, Jam Yasir Altaf, Muhammad Shoaib Sultan, Mian Najam Joya, Aftab Mubarak, Salim Akhtar and Imran Mahmood Akhtar, have been elected as members of the executive council.
The team includes Nisar Ali (captain), Amir Ishfaq (vice-captain), Riasat Khan, Sajid Nawaz, Zafar Iqbal, Muhammad Asif, Muhammad Ayyaz, Badar Munir, Haroon Khan, Mati Ullah, Anees Javed, Mohsin Khan, Muhammad Jamil, Muhammad Ejaz, Sana Ullah Marwat, Israr Hassan and Zeeshan Abbasi (playing manager).
The members of the team are Asjad Iqbal, Muhammad Asif, Mubashair Raza, Muhammad Naseem Akhtar, Imran Shahzad, Muhammad Yousaf and Khurram Hussain Agha.
The accused were identified as Zahid Iqbal, Ubaid Ullah, Arshed Maseeh, Zafar Iqbal, Muhammad Jahan Zeb, Omer, Naveed Akhtar, Afzal, Javed, Sarfraz, Ghulam Abbas, Haider Ali, Riaz, Bashir Khan, Aslam, Hamid Ali, Tanveer, Munawwar, Saeed and others.
Sheraz Ahmed was the coordinator while the participants were Osama Iqbal, Muhammad Sd, Ahmad Areeb, Abdul Rahim, Kamran, Salman Haroon, Muzaffar Haroon, Aziz Abdullah, Shahzad Emad and Ahmad Salim.
Some of the slain persons were identified as MPA Imran Mohmand, Gul Bacha, Fazal Malik, Abdur Rehman, Amanullah, Muhammad Ishaq, Jehanzeb, Shah Jee, Muhammad Umar, Jehanzeb Khan, Nazimuddin, Ayub Khan, Ali Gohar, Arshad Iqbal, Muhammad Zahir, Mukhtiar Khan, Adnan Khan and Ihsanullah.
Iqbal, Muhammad (1988) The reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam.
Byline: Shahid Iqbal, Muhammad Haneef, Shahid Jameel Sameeni, Taqweemul Haq Ali, Farhan Shabbir, Mohammad Arshad and Tahir Khan
There are four players who played 5 under par; namely Shabbir Iqbal, Muhammad Munir, Matloob Ahmed, Chinar Gul.