Iran-Iraq War


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Iran-Iraq War,

1980–88, protracted military conflict between Iran and Iraq. It officially began on Sept. 22, 1980, with an Iraqi land and air invasion of western Iran, although Iraqi spokespersons maintained that Iran had been engaging in artillery attacks on Iraqi towns since Sept. 4. Iraqi president Saddam Hussein claimed as the reason for his attack on Iran a territorial dispute over the Shatt al Arab, a waterway that empties into the Persian Gulf and forms the boundary between Iran and Iraq. In 1975, a militarily weaker Iraq had by treaty signed over to Iran partial control of the waterway, but after the fall (1979) of Muhammad Reza Shah Pahlevi and the resultant weakening of Iran's military, Iraq seized the opportunity to reclaim the Shatt al Arab. Iraq also hoped to seize the western Iranian region of Khuzestan, an area known for its extensive oil fields. The Iraqi offensive was initially successful, capturing the port city of Khorramshahr by the end of 1980. Iranian resistance proved strong, however, and Iraqi troops had withdrawn from the occupied portions of Iran by early 1982. Nevertheless, Iranian leader Ruhollah Khomeini declared that Iran would not cease fighting until Saddam's regime was toppled. Iran began a series of offensives, which proved successful enough to cause Iraq to resort to the use of chemical weapons (see poison gaspoison gas,
any of various gases sometimes used in warfare or riot control because of their poisonous or corrosive nature. These gases may be roughly grouped according to the portal of entry into the body and their physiological effects.
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), a tactic reviled by the international community. Iranian troops captured the oil-rich Majnoon Islands from Iraq in Feb., 1984, and southern Iraq's Fao peninsula in early 1986. Sporadic air and missile attacks on cities and military installations were common throughout the war, and in 1985 both sides began to strike their opponent's capital. The United States and several Western European nations became involved in the war in 1987, in response to Iranian attacks on Kuwaiti oil tankers traveling in the Persian Gulf. These attacks sullied Iran's international reputation considerably, making it difficult for Khomeini to obtain arms. Finally, in July, 1988, Iran was forced to accept a United Nations–mandated cease-fire. Estimates of the number of dead range up to 1.5 million. In its war effort, Iran was supported by Syria and Libya, and received much of its weaponry from North Korea and China, as well as from covert arms transactions from the United States. Iraq enjoyed much wider support, both among Arab and Western nations: the Soviet Union was its largest supplier of arms. In 1990 Iraq, concerned with securing its forcible annexation of Kuwait (see Persian Gulf WarPersian Gulf Wars,
two conflicts involving Iraq and U.S.-led coalitions in the late 20th and early 21st cent.

The First Persian Gulf War, also known as the Gulf War, Jan.–Feb.
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), agreed to accept the terms of the 1975 treaty with Iran and withdraw its troops from Iranian territory as well as exchange all prisoners of war. An agreement was not signed, however, and both sides held thousands of POWs for many years. Several prisoner exchanges and releases occurred after 1988; the final exchange took place in 2003.
References in periodicals archive ?
About 750,000 troops died on both sides in the American Civil War when the US and Confederate population was roughly the same as Iran's during the Iran-iraq war.
Its platform was destroyed during the Iran-Iraq war.
For his part, Chairman of the Committee on Health and the Environment Council of Missan province, Maytham al-Fartusi, told Aswat al-Iraq, that there is a "five million landmines left since Iran-Iraq war are not addressed as a need to specialized bodies and possibilities and huge sums," adding that efforts made by the 10th division of the Iraqi army in this regard "remains limited and not enough".
While Iran is known to have bought short-range Scud missiles from North Korea and used them against Iraq during the Iran-Iraq war, South Korea's diplomatic papers show the United States and South Korea knew shortly after the war started that Pyongyang had probably supplied weapons to Iran.
An Iran-Iraq war over oil could become a strong possibility - perhaps sooner than 2017 - if Tehran's current crisis ends without a military confrontation against the big powers.
Torfi's invocation of Khuzestan seems to set the meaning of the film's opening funeral, and the trajectory of the film as a whole, as somehow connected with the Iran-Iraq War.
The book examines pivotal historical episodes: Iran's support of Germany before the First World War; cooperation and close trading relations between the two countries in the interwar years; the Islamic revolution in 1979; and Iran's attempts to strengthen ties with Europe in the aftermath of the Iran-Iraq War.
After World War I and the Abyssinian War, the Iran-Iraq War represented the next major use of chemical weapons.
Saddam armed the PMOI to fight Iran on the frontline during the seven-year Iran-Iraq war at the time he was gassing Kurdish villagers and committing other war crimes for which, if Mr Griffiths remembers, he was recently hanged.
Consequently, the papers presented in this book extract the most salient issues responsible for tensions between Iran and Iraq, focusing on the Iran-Iraq war between 1980 and 1988.
In its agitating for and illegally supplying arms to both sides during the Iran-Iraq war, in its destruction of military and civilian infrastructure and criminal rout of the Iraqi army in the first Gulf War, and in its imposition of draconian, deadly sanctions on Iraq throughout the nineties, U.
The CIA/Defense Intelligence Agency relation with Saddam intensified after the start of the Iran-Iraq war in September of 1980.

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