Irish


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Irish

1. another name for Irish Gaelic

Irish

 

a nation (natsiia, nation in the historical sense); the native population of Ireland. The total population in the Irish Republic is more than 2.9 million (1971, estimate); in Great Britain, 1.3 million (mainly in Northern Ireland). Mass emigrations from Ireland, especially after the mid-19th century, led to the creation of significant groups of the Irish in the USA (about 2 million), Canada (more than 160,000), and Australia and Oceania (more than 60,000). The majority of the Irish speak English. About a quarter of the population of the Irish Republic and some of the Irish emigrants speak Irish.

The Irish are predominantly Catholic, and the influence of the Catholic Church is great. The ethnic group of the Irish (formed in the tenth to 12th centuries) came mainly from the Celtic-speaking Gaels, who resettled on the island from Scotland in the fourth century B.C. Survivals of the clan structure of the Gaels were retained as late as the 19th century.

The Irish nation took form (18th and 19th centuries) in difficult and, in fact, colonialist conditions, enduring the economic and national oppression of the English. The English authorities prohibited the Irish from using their Irish (Gaelic) language and persecuted the Catholic Church. The majority of the Irish were forced to change to English, but they retained their ethnic Irish identity.

In the 1890’s a struggle began for the revival of the Irish language and culture. After the founding in 1921 of the Irish Free State, Irish was recognized there as an official language, along with English. The Irish of Northern Ireland, remaining within the framework of Great Britain, are waging a struggle against economic oppression and national and religious discrimination. In material and spiritual culture, the Irish who live in Ireland preserve some traits linking them with other peoples of Celtic origin (the Scots and Welsh).

REFERENCES

Engels, F. “Drevniaia Irlandiia.” In Arkhiv Marksa i Engel’sa, vol. 10. Leningrad, 1948.
Narody zarubezhnoi Evropy, vol. 2. Moscow, 1965. (Bibliography.)

V. I. KOZLOV


Irish

 

the language of part of the population of the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland; the first official language of the Republic of Ireland (from 1921). Irish belongs to the Goidelic branch of the Celtic languages. The number of those who speak Irish in the Republic of Ireland is approximately 600,000 persons (1971, estimate). Some Irish emigrants also speak Irish. Ancient Irish monuments include the Ogham inscriptions from the fourth and fifth centuries A.D. The Roman alphabet has been used since the seventh century.

Three periods are distinguished in the history of Irish: Old Irish (seventh to tenth centuries), Middle Irish (tenth to 14th centuries), and Modern Irish (since the early 15th century). A voluminous literature (sagas, poetic works, lives, and annals) was preserved in recorded form after the 11th century, although much of it dates to the Old Irish period. The modern Irish literary language is a synthesis of three main dialects—Munster, Connacht, and Ulster. The development of Irish is characterized by a simplification of the noun and verb systems and the appearance of analytical constructions. The system of initial consonant mutations, which is also peculiar to other Celtic languages, remains basically unchanged. The vocabulary contains many borrowings from Latin (from the fifth century). Irish has been heavily influenced by English since the 15th century.

REFERENCES

Thurneysen, R. A Grammar of Old Irish. Dublin, 1946.
Thurneysen, R. Old Irish Reader. Dublin, 1949.
Pokorny, J. Altirische Grammatik. Berlin, 1969.
Dinneen, P. S. An Irish-English Dictionary. Dublin, 1945.

A. A. KOROLEV

References in classic literature ?
which means "with speed" - to introduce embarrassment into an Irish regiment, "already half-mutinous, quartered among Sikh peasantry, all wearing miniatures of His Highness Dhulip Singh, Maharaja of the Punjab, next their hearts, and all eagerly expecting his arrival.
Between himself and the Roman Catholic Chaplain of the Irish contingent lay, as Bennett believed, an unbridgeable gulf, but it was noticeable that whenever the Church of England dealt with a human problem she was very likely to call in the Church of Rome.
I'm fifteen stone, as hard as nails, and play center three-quarter every Saturday for the London Irish.
He had some remote claim on it, as on a family castle; and those who knew him thought him capable of imitating the primitive Irish chieftains who fell fighting against the sea.
George said it was absurd to have only four potatoes in an Irish stew, so we washed half-a-dozen or so more, and put them in without peeling.
Irish he stoutly was, and Irish he stoutly abided, though it was with a faint lip-lift of scorn that he mentioned mere South-of-Ireland men, or even Orange-men.
It was a wild, primitive countryside in those days; and often I heard my mother pride herself that we were old American stock and not immigrant Irish and Italians like our neighbours.
These old Irish manuscripts are perhaps none of them older than the eleventh century, but the stories are far, far older.
The committee stood up and clapped their hands for joy, and while they were clapping them, in came Sir Matthew Pupker, attended by two live members of Parliament, one Irish and one Scotch, all smiling and bowing, and looking so pleasant that it seemed a perfect marvel how any man could have the heart to vote against them.
Irish, Germans, French, Scotch, all the heterogeneous units which make up the population of Maryland shouted in their respective vernaculars; and the "vivas," "hurrahs," and "bravos" were intermingled in inexpressible enthusiasm.
The Irish missionaries were simple and loving men and won converts by the beauty of their lives; the Romans brought with them the architecture, music, and learning of their imperial city and the aggressive energy which in the following centuries was to make their Church supreme throughout the Western world.
He was by birth an Irish gentleman, and in boyhood had known the Galloways--especially Margaret Graham.