Consequently, the fluence rate is larger than the spherical irradiance
by a factor of 4.
Due to wider availability, sunshine duration has been used as a proxy for reconstruction of global irradiance
on the annual and monthly as well as on the daily levels.
Two types of irradiance
measurements were carried out.
The GWC real-time irradiance
forecasts provide accurate, actionable information for those relying on solar generation to meet customer demands.
Higher-wattage light sources were correlated with higher UV-A irradiance
4], "calibration of the solar reflectance bands presented a problem in that none of the calibration sources available from the NBS, either the radiance or irradiance
standards, could begin to fill the 10-cm aperture (of the sensor optics) in a way that simulated an extended source, such as earth.
Southern Africa's natural irradiance
is also at high levels during winter.
XenoLogic is a twin-lamp operating technology which enables the instrument to achieve high irradiance
levels of 120 W/[m.
Varied doses of UVB radiation were administered to budgerigars by altering exposure time and irradiance
When primary production is modelled for longer than diurnal time-scales, diel variations of light intensity are commonly ignored and the mean daily photosynthetically available irradiance
(PAR) is used to estimate primary production.
Other topics include three-dimensional dust radiative transfer, the dawn of chemistry, solar irradiance
variability and climate, modeling the panchromatic spectral energy distributions of galaxies, and nucleosynthesis in stars and the chemical enrichment of galaxies.
Over the years, various chapters of the ASHRAE Handbook--Fundamentals have provided a method to estimate clear-sky (cloud-free) irradiance
values for use with cooling load estimation methods and other applications.