Isabella II


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Isabella II,

1830–1904, queen of Spain (1833–68), daughter of Ferdinand VII and of Maria ChristinaMaria Christina
, 1806–78, queen of Spain, daughter of Francis I of the Two Sicilies. The fourth wife of Ferdinand VII, she persuaded him to confirm (1833) the original revocation (1789) of the Salic law to allow their daughter Isabella to succeed him.
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. Her uncle, Don CarlosCarlos
(Carlos María Isidro de Borbón), 1788–1855, second son of Charles IV of Spain. He was the first Carlist pretender. After his father's abdication (1808) he was, with the rest of his family, held a prisoner in France until 1814.
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, contested her succession under the Salic lawSalic law
, rule of succession in certain royal and noble families of Europe, forbidding females and those descended in the female line to succeed to the titles or offices in the family.
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, and thus the Carlist Wars began (see CarlistsCarlists,
partisans of Don Carlos (1788–1855) and his successors, who claimed the Spanish throne under the Salic law of succession, introduced (1713) by Philip V. The law (forced on Philip by the War of the Spanish Succession to avoid a union of the French and Spanish
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). Isabella was under the regency of her mother until 1840, when EsparteroEspartero, Baldomero, duque de la Victoria, conde de Luchana
, 1793–1879, Spanish general and statesman. He fought against the French in the Peninsular War (1808–14) and later against the revolutionists in South America.
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 seized power. After his regency (1841–43) was overthrown, Isabella was declared of age. In 1846 the queen married her cousin, Francisco de Asís, and her sister, Luisa Fernanda, married a son of Louis Philippe of France, the duc de Montpensier. These Spanish marriages, which contravened earlier Anglo-French agreements about the choice of husbands for the two sisters, aroused the anger of England, who feared a Franco-Spanish rapprochement, and caused a temporary severance of the entente between England and France. Isabella's rule was one of party conflicts among moderates, progressives, and liberal unionists and of continuous cabinet changes. NarváezNarváez, Ramón María
, 1800–1868, Spanish general and statesman. He distinguished himself fighting for Isabella II against the Carlists (1834–39).
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, EsparteroEspartero, Baldomero, duque de la Victoria, conde de Luchana
, 1793–1879, Spanish general and statesman. He fought against the French in the Peninsular War (1808–14) and later against the revolutionists in South America.
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, and O'DonnellO'Donnell, Leopoldo
, 1809–67, Spanish general and statesman; member of a branch of the Irish O'Donnells of Tyrconnel. He fought successfully for Isabella II against the Carlists. When Espartero seized (1840) power in Spain, O'Donnell went into exile with Maria Christina.
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 were among her premiers. Frequent rebellions culminated in 1868 in the insurrection led by Serrano and Juan Prim, and Isabella was deposed (see SpainSpain,
Span. España , officially Kingdom of Spain, constitutional monarchy (2005 est. pop. 40,341,000), 194,884 sq mi (504,750 sq km), including the Balearic and Canary islands, SW Europe.
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). She spent the rest of her life in France. In 1870 she abdicated her rights in favor of her son, Alfonso XIIAlfonso XII,
1857–85, king of Spain (1874–85), son of Isabella II. He went into exile with his parents at the time of the revolt of the Carlists in 1868 and was educated in Austria and England.
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.

Isabella II

 

Born Oct. 10, 1830, in Madrid; died Apr. 9, 1904, in Paris. Queen of Spain from 1833 to 1868. Daughter of Ferdinand VII.

Until Isabella II was proclaimed to be of age in 1843, Spain was ruled by regents. (Isabella IPs mother, María Cristina, ruled from 1833 to 1840, and General Espartero ruled from 1840 to 1843.) The period after 1843 was one of rule by a court clique, or camarilla. Isabella II fled to France on Sept. 30, 1868, with the beginning of the Spanish Revolution of 1868–74.

Isabella II

1830--1904, queen of Spain (1833--68), whose accession precipitated the first Carlist war (1833--39). She was deposed in a revolution
References in periodicals archive ?
The country had lately come into the hands of General Espartero who, as dictator and regent, guarded the young infanta, Queen-to-be Isabella II, from her exiled mother and from the unconstructed royalists who still controlled parts of the army.
He romanticized the influence and ability of the young Queen Isabella II, was taken in by the wily queen mother, Maria Cristina, and provided too optimistic an assessment of General Espartero's staying power.
On loan from Zamora's mother-in-law, the penny-sized coins date back to the reign of Queen Isabella II of Spain, who was in power from 1833-68.