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Alexandretta(ăl'ĭgzăndrĕt`ə), city (1990 pop. 156,198), S Turkey, on the Gulf of Alexandretta, an inlet of the Mediterranean Sea. The principal Turkish port on the Mediterranean, it has a large steel plant and is the terminus for an oil pipeline. The city was founded by Alexander the Great to commemorate his victory over the Persians at IssusIssus
, ancient town of SE Asia Minor, now in Turkey, 5 mi (8 km) NW of Dörtyol. Located near the head of a gulf (the modern Gulf of Iskenderun), Issus was on a narrow strip of land backed by high mountains. Nearby, in 333 B.C.
..... Click the link for more information. in 333 B.C. In A.D. 1515 the Ottoman Empire under Selim I, its ruler, captured the city. Iskenderun was transferred (1920) to the French Syria League of Nations mandate as part of the sanjak of Alexandretta, but was returned to Turkey in 1939 (see HatayHatay
, formerly sanjak of Alexandretta,
province (1990 pop. 1,002,252), 2,141 sq mi (5,545 sq km), S Turkey, including the cities of Antioch (now Antakya) and Alexandretta (now Iskenderun).
..... Click the link for more information. ).
a gulf of the Mediterranean Sea, located along the southeastern shores of Turkey. The gulf is 74 km long, up to 46 km wide, and as much as 99 m deep (at the entrance). The eastern and southeastern shores are mountainous, the western low-lying. The Ceyhan River empties into the gulf. Tides are semidiurnal, their height attaining 0.8 m. Located on the eastern shore is the port of iskenderun (Alexandretta).