Iskolat


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Iskolat

 

(full name, Executive Committee of the Soviet of Workers’, Soldiers’, and Landless Deputies of Latvia), created by a proposal of the Central Committee of the Social Democrats of Latvia at a session of the soviet held in Riga on July 30 (Aug. 12), 1917.

Iskolat had 27 members: 24 Bolsheviks and three Social Democrats of the Internationalist faction; the Bolshevik O. Kãrkliņš was its chairman. It played an important role in preparing and carrying out the October Revolution of 1917 in the part of Latvia that was not occupied by German troops. Its membership included A. Berzin (Andersons), J. Vilks, K. A. Gailis, K. Iu. Danishevskii, J. M. KrŨmiņš (Pilāts), J. Peterss, R. J. Eihe, and E. Eferts (Klusais). On Aug. 21 (Sept. 3), 1917, the German troops captured Riga. Iskolat was first based in Cēsis (Wenden) and then in Valka, where it received full power from the Military Revolutionary Committee of the Twelfth Army district at a plenary session of the soviet held on Nov. 8–9 (21–22), 1917. It liquidated the local administrative bodies of the bourgeois Provisional Government.

At the congress of the Soviets of Latvia held in Valmiera on Dec. 18 (31), 1917, a new Iskolat was elected; it was composed of 24 members and was in fact the first Soviet government of Latvia. F. A. Roziņņ (Āzis) was the chairman, Gailis and Kãrkliņšs were vice-chairmen, and J. Mežiņš was secretary. Iskolat strengthened Soviet power and implemented the decrees on land, workers’ control, and the organization of the Red Guard and the Soviet state apparatus. In late February 1918, after German troops had occupied all of Latvia, Iskolat was evacuated to Moscow, and it discontinued its activities in March.

REFERENCES

Kommunisticheskaia partiia Latvii v Oktiabr’skoi revoliutsii 1917: Dokumenty i materialy (mart 1917-fevr. 1918). Riga, 1963. (Translated from Latvian.)
Bor’ba za sovetskuiu vlast’ v Pribaltike. Moscow, 1967.

A. A. DRIZUL