Isograms

Isograms

 

(also isolines), lines of equal value of some magnitude in its distribution on a surface, in particular on a plane (geographic map, vertical cross section, or graph). Isograms reflect continuous change in the quantity under investigation as a function of two other variables, for example, of geographic latitude and longitude on maps. Table 1 lists some isograms.

Isograms on maps are used most extensivey to characterize the values of continuous quantities and quantities that change gradually in space (for example, air temperature). However, they also perform much more varied functions. They are used on maps to indicate change in the quantitative characteristics of phenomena with time (for example, secular changes in the components of the earth’s magnetism), the rate of change of phenomena (for example, wind velocity), the time of occurrence of certain phenomena (for example, the onset of the first autumn frosts), the duration of phenomena (for example, the number of days with snow cover), the orientation of some physical quantities (for example, magnetic declination), and the frequency or probability of phenomena (for example, the frequency of thunderstorms). If at least one of the independent variables is some quantity other than a geographic coordinate, then the isograms are called isopleths.

IU. G. KEL’NER

Table 1. The most common isograms
1 The part of the term after the prefix is of Greek origin unless otherwise indicated
NameEtymology1Phenomenonbeing described
Hydroisobathbathos, “depth”Depth of groundwater table
relative to earth’s surface
Hydroisohypsehypsos, “height”Elevation of groundwater
table above sea level
Hydroisopiesospiezo, “I press”Pressure of artesian waters
Isallobarsbams, “weight”Change in atmospheric
pressure per unit time
Isallohypsehypsos, “height”Change in elevation of
isobaric surface per unit
time
Isallotherm
(isoallotherm)
therme, “heat”Change in air temperature
per unit time
Isametralametros,
“incommensurable,” “irregular”
Same as isanomal
Isamplitudes
(isoamplitudes)
Latin amplitudo, “magnitude”Amplitude of change in meteorological elements
over some interval of time.
Isanemone
(isovel)
anemos, “wind”Average wind velocity over
some period of time
Isanomal
(isametral)
anomalos, “irregular”Deviation of some quantity
(temperature, amount of
precipation) from value
adopted as norm (average
long-term, average latitudinal)
Isoanthoanthos, “flower,”
“blossoming”
Times when certain plants
blossom
Isoatmosphereatmos, “vapor,”
“evaporation”
Magnitude of evaporation or
evaporability for a certain
time interval
Isobasebasis, “stepping,”
“base”
ana, “upward”
cata, “downward”
Magnitude of tectonic
movements (uplifts—
isanabases–or subs-
idences—isocatabases) over
some interval of time
Isobarbaros, “weight”Atmospheric pressure
Isobathbathos, “depth”Depth of bodies of water
Isobrontbronte, “thunder”Number of days with
thunderstorms
Isochronechronos, “time”Times of occurrence of
some phenomenon
Isoclinic line klino, “I lean”Magnitude of magnetic clip
Isodynamic linedynamis, “force”Full intensity of the earth’s
magnetic field or its
components
Isogonic linegonia, “angle”Orientation of certain
physical quantities
(magnetic declination, wind
direction)
Isohalinehals, “salt”Salinity of waters
Isohionchion, “snow,” “snow
cover”
Thickness or duration of
snow cover
Isohyethyetos, “rain”Amount of precipitation in a
certain period
Isohypse (horizontal)hypsos, “height”Elevation of the earth’s
surface above sea
level
Isonephnephos, “cloud”Cloudiness
Isopachpachys, “thick,”
“massive”
Thickness of geological
strata of certain age or
composition
Isophase Greatest phases of solar
eclipse
Isophenephaino, “I show”Times or duration of certain
phenological phases
Isoporpoms, “path,”
“passage”
Secular changes in components
of earth’s magnetism
Isorhachic linerhachia, “surf,” “ocean
waves”
Elevation of ocean tides
Isoseismalseistos, “set to oscillat-ing,”
“oscillated”
Intensity of earthquakes
Isotacteko, “I melt”Times when frozen inland
waters thaw
Isotachtachos, “speed”Velocity of currents
Isothermtherme, “heat”Temperature of air, water, and soil
Isothermobaththerme, “heat”
bathos, “depth”
Water temperature in the
depths of bodies of water
IsovelLatin velox, “quick”Same as isanemone
References in periodicals archive ?
Over the years, Word Ways has identified many of the longest isograms, words and names which use no repeated letters.
In addition, synchronously applying of the other capabilities of this software and Excel 10 program, the map of isograms was drawn and prepared.
At Figs 2 and 3 isograms of the maximum and the minimum elongation of the most important horizontal deformations are provided.
The third is the ludic mode, which relates to my liking for constraints, exploits and "exercises" and gives rise to all the work based on the notions and devices gleaned from Oulipo's experiments: palindromes, lipograms, pangrams, anagrams, isograms, acrostics, crosswords, and so on.
He settled on Letter Shifts (add to bee, ice to keg, fusion to layout), augmented by Isograms (Melvin Schwarzkopf), Scrambled Alphabets designed to maximize (or minimize) the number of four-letter Pocket Dictionary words in alphabetic order (abet, bevy, chin .
For example, poems 50, 125, and 162 are isograms on the initial letter (i.
The third is the ludic mode, which relates to my liking for constraints, exploits, "exercises," and gives rise to all the work based on the notions and devices gleaned from OuLiPo's experiments: palindromes, lipograms, pangrams, anagrams, isograms, acrostics, crosswords, etc.
DARRYL FRANCIS writes: Jeff Grant's article Long Pair Isograms appeared in the August 2012 Word Ways, and listed various names and terms with seven or more like pairs of letters.
SIR JEREMY MORSE has been investigating the longest isograms that can be made from truncated alphabets, and finds as follows.
Darryl Francis's article New Pair Isograms in the February 2012 Word Ways brought back memories from my early days of dabbling with word play.
Dmitri Borgmann introduced the concept of pair isograms in Language on Vacation .
He settled on Letter Shifts (p 173-76) such as add to bee, ice to keg, fusion to layout, augmented by Isograms (p 49-50) illustrated by real people such as Melvin Schwarzkopf, Scrambled Alphabets (p 179-80) to maximize (or minimize) the number of fourletter Pocket Dictionary words in alphabetic order (abet, bevy.