Italici

Italici

 

a group of Indo-European tribes in ancient Italy who spoke Italic languages. The Italici were divided into two branches: Latin-Faliscan, which included the Faliscans, Latini, Aurunci, and Aenotrians (the Siculi probably also belonged to this branch), and Osco-Umbrian-Sabellian, which consisted of the Umbri, Osci (Samnites, Sabini, Aequi, and Volsci), and Sabellians (Marsi, Marrucini, Frentani, and Vestini). The Italici were at different stages of socioeconomic and cultural development: the greatest development was made by the Latini, who in the sixth century B.C. were mainly at the stage of early class states.

In the 19th century, scholars maintained the notion that the Italici came across the Alps to the Apennine Peninsula in the second millennium B.C., bringing with them metal culture (the Italian scholar L. Pigorini regarded the Italici as the creators of the bronze and iron cultures in the territory of Italy). The Russian scholar V.I. Modestov and the Italian researcher G. Devoto assumed that the Italici migrated from Central Europe in two waves: the Proto-Latins, who created the Ter-ramara culture early in the second millennium B.C., and the ancestors of the Umbri and Sabellians, creators of the Villanovan culture, late second and early first millennium B.C. Italian historians are now of the opinion that the ancient cultures of Italy developed continuously and in succession from the Neolithic to the Iron Age, regardless of the migrations (G. Patroni, P. Orsi, and U. Rellini); that sporadic migrations of Indo-European tribes from the Balkan Peninsula across the Adriatic occurred early in the second millennium B.C.; and that the tribes spread over the Apennine Peninsula from the west to the east, north, and south (the Italian archaeologist M. Pallottino).

The term “Italici” is also used as the general name for all the tribes that inhabited the Apennine Peninsula and were subjugated by Rome in the fifth to third centuries B.C. The Italici were granted Roman citizenship after the Civil War (early first century B.C.); they underwent Romanization in the first century B.C.

REFERENCES

Modestov, V.I. Vvedenie v rimskuiu istoriiu, parts 1–2. St. Petersburg, 1902–04.
Nemirovskii, A.I. Istoriia rannego Rima i Italii. Voronezh, 1962.
Altheim, F. Italien und Rom, vol. 1. Amsterdam-Leipzig [1941].
Devoto, G. “Altitalien.” In Historia mundi, vol. 3. Bern, 1954.

I. L. MAIAK

References in classic literature ?
Virtu contro al Furore Prendera l'arme, e fia il combatter corto: Che l'antico valore Negli italici cuor non e ancor morto.
Dalle rarefatte atmosfere rosselliniane, dalla magia del sud, in I magliari (1959) di Rosi siamo proiettati nella prosa cinica del settentrione, vissuto da alcuni canaglieschi immigrati italici.
Atti del XXIV Convegno di Studi Etruschi ed Italici, Marseille-Lattes, 26 Settembre-1 Ottobre 2002: 657-78.
Without the means to provide the Italici satisfactory treatment, recruitment was expanded to the provincials and in the late Empire to the barbarians.
51 Biondo, 43: "multa in hac belli italici historia .
4: Imperator noster Antoninianus civitatem Emisenorum coloniam et iuris Italici fecit; cf.
Il metodo degli studi del nostro tempo; L'antichissima sapienza degli italici.
La problematica della genesi della statue-stele alia luce di vecchie e recenti scoperte, in I Piceni e l'Italia medio-adriatica (Atti del 22 convegno di studi etruschi ed italici, Ascoli Piceno-Teramo-Ancona, 9-13 aprile 2000): 361-78.
Catalogo dei manoscritti italiani che sotto la denominazione di Codici Canoniciani Italici si conservano nella Biblioteca Bodleiana a Oxford.
32)"REX SUPER-ILLUSTRIS FRANCISCUS FRANCUS IN AEDES/VENIT, CUM DUCIBUS PRINCIBUSQUE, SACRAS,/CLAUDIA, NOBILIUM HIC MAGNA STIPANTE CATERVA/CUM GENETRICE VIRI, CUMQUE SOROR FUIT:/HOC FUIT ITALICI POST MARTIA BELLA TRIUMPHI,/CUM REX FRANCISCUS DEBITA VOTA DARET"; Faillon, 1034.
Italici e poi arricchito da una prefazione, da due interventi introduttivi che precedono l'intervista (da parte di Bassetti e di d'Aquino) e, a seguire, da quattro sezioni di riflessione ed analisi del concetto di "italicita".
From the years of war between the italici and the Romans, to the construction of the capital city while under Swedish control in the thirteenth century, through its rise, and eventual fall, as an economic and political European power, Paolini closely follows the developments of the city and the region up through Spanish and French control, eventually ending with its annexation to the realm of Vittorio Emanuele II in 1860.