Ivan III


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Related to Ivan III: Ivan IV, Michael Romanov

Ivan III

or

Ivan the Great,

1440–1505, grand duke of Moscow (1462–1505), creator of the consolidated Muscovite (Russian) state. He subjugated (1478) Great NovgorodNovgorod
, city (1989 pop. 229,000), capital of Novgorod region, NW European Russia, on the Volkhov River near the point where it leaves Lake Ilmen. Novgorod's industries produce chemicals, fertilizer, and wood and food products. It has a major tourism industry.
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, asserted his sway over Vyatka, Tver, Yaroslavl, Rostov-Suzdal, and other territories, and checked the eastward expansion of Lithuania, from which he gained some former Russian lands. In 1480 he freed Muscovy from allegiance to the Tatars of the Golden HordeGolden Horde, Empire of the,
Mongol state comprising most of Russia, given as an appanage to Jenghiz Khan's oldest son, Juchi, and actually conquered and founded in the mid-13th cent. by Juchi's son, Batu Khan, after the Mongol or Tatar (see Tatars) conquest of Russia.
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. To prevent insurrection in annexed territories, Ivan transplanted their ruling classes to Old Muscovy and replaced them with loyal Muscovites. Prudence and wisdom were said to be his dominant traits. He established autocratic government and took as his second wife Sophia, niece of the last Byzantine emperor. The two-headed eagle of Byzantium was added to the arms of Muscovy, Sophia introduced customs of the Byzantine court, and the idea of Moscow as a "third Rome" (successor to the might of Rome and the Byzantine Empire) became popular in official circles. Laws were codified, foreign artisans were introduced, and Italian architects erected churches, palaces, and fortifications. Ivan was succeeded by his son, Vasily III.

Bibliography

See study by R. M. Crowskey (1987).

Ivan III

known as Ivan the Great. 1440--1505, grand duke of Muscovy (1462--1505). He expanded Muscovy, defeated the Tatars (1480), and assumed the title of Ruler of all Russia (1472)
References in periodicals archive ?
As Ivan III receives Novgorodian emissaries and makes peace, the pace of imagery slows with pictures grounded by the figure of the grand prince (15:147-50, 268-82).
28) Movement and violence in the LLS were balanced by the reassuring iconography of a legitimate ruler: Ivan III was shown as forceful but pious, merciful, and surrounded by righteous advisers.
If credible, not to say actually verifiable, Alekseev's thesis would force us to rethink the religious and intellectual history of Moscow and Novgorod at the time of Ivan III.
This merits pondering, as does Alekseev's take on the theologically undereducated but opportunistically savvy and ruthless Ivan III, whom our author presents as sharing the "typical piety" of the majority of his Moscow predecessors, balanced by "considerations of the flow of politics" (150).
19) Perhaps the principal publications are Keenan, "The Jarlyk of Axmed-xan to Ivan III," and Keenan, "Muscovy and Kazan'.
BABY BLUES Van called his new arrival George Ivan III
In history, which Russian tsar was known as Ivan the Terrible: Ivan III or Ivan IV?
This seems to reflect the confusion introduced on the one hand by the translation of Russian titles into what was still the language of Western diplomacy, Latin, and on the other the greatly increased impact of Russia on the Western diplomatic scene since the early 15th century, the Councils of Ferrara/Florence, and the consolidation of the power of Ivan III of Vladimir and Moscow.
According to Filiushkin (65ff), the title gosudar' (which he does not identify with dominus), was introduced into Russian titulature by Ivan III, though it was already in use in slightly differing forms in the kingdom of Poland-Lithuania: for instance, by Vitovt.
He argues that Ivan III used this title when it was felt necessary to stress to his interlocutor that he was entitled to a higher rank than that of grand prince (65).
The Novgorodian Fourth Chronicle adds another element to Feofil's actions, telling us that he ordered that the cavalry be withheld from the Battle of Shelon' River that the Novgorodians fought against Muscovite Grand Prince Ivan III and his allies in 1471.
After defeating the Novgorodians at Shelon' River in 1471, Ivan III ordered the arrest and execution of a number of Novgorodian boyars.