Time, Ivan Avgustovich
Born July 11 (23), 1838, in Zla-toustovskii Zavod; died Nov. 5, 1920, in Petrograd. Russian scientist and mining engineer.
Time graduated from the St. Petersburg Institute of the Corps of Mining Engineers in 1858. From 1859 to 1866 he worked in plants in the Urals and from 1866 to 1870 in plants in the Donbas. At various times in the period 1870–1915 he was a professor at the St. Petersburg Institute of the Corps of Mining Engineers. From 1873 to 1917 he was a member of the Committee of Mining Scientists and a consultant to the St. Petersburg Mint. Time developed the theory and rules for the design and construction of steam hammers, iron-rolling machines, hydraulic turbines, and other mining and metallurgical machinery, and he provided the primary guidelines for the operation of such machinery.
Time’s works The Resistance of Metals and Wood to Cutting (1870), A Note on the Planing of Metals (1877), and The Formation of Chips in Plastic Materials (1884) played an important role in the creation of a theory of wood and metal cutting. His A Practical Course in Steam Engines (vols. 1–2, 1886–87), A Course in Hydraulics (vols. 1–2, 1891–94), and The Foundations of Machine Building (vols. 1–2, 1883–85) were of great importance to the development of machine building. Time’s book The Mechanics of Mining and Metallurgy: A Reference Book for Mining Engineers and Technicians (1879) was for many years a manual for Russian mining engineers.
REFERENCESShukhardin, S. V. Ivan Avgustovich Time (1838–1920). Moscow-Leningrad, 1951.
Russkie uchenye—osnovopolozhniki nauki o rezanii metallov: I. A. Time. Moscow, 1952.
V. V. NOVIKOV