Events surrounding Ogata's proposal for a JCIA in November 1952 and Murai's involvement in the so-called black market dollar incident in September 1953 demonstrate clearly the obstacles that arose from sectionalism within organizations, both bureaucratic and political.
An acknowledged HUMINT capability was, in fact, one element of an ambitious three-point plan for a JCIA that Murai had earlier proposed.
Ogata's revised proposal called for cuts to the proposed budget and staff numbers, and, more importantly, only a minor expansion and upgrade of the existing CRC's capabilities rather than the creation of a JCIA (Arima 2010a, 196; Inoue 2008, 46).
Together, the removal from power of these three advocates of a more robust intelligence system contributed to the failure of the JCIA plan.
At the same time, an additional obstacle to the JCIA proposal emerged from within the Diet and mass media.
32) As the discussion below highlights, antimilitarism helped shape the thinking of important political actors, which served to frustrate plans for a JCIA.
Ogata did enough during the war to be purged from politics in 1946 and to be a person of concern for those on the left opposed to plans to establish a JCIA.
Diet members have regularly expressed unease over the CRC and its institutional successor, the CIRO, since the unsuccessful attempt to create a JCIA in the early 1950s.
However, unlike the case of rearmament, the Japanese government's efforts to create a JCIA were not merely a passive response to US pressure (beiatsu).
While the United States did not lend support to Yoshida's "counter infiltration" proposal targeting China, effectively killing it off, there is no evidence to suggest that Washington's opposition was decisive in the Japanese government's abandonment of plans to create a JCIA in the early 1950s.
Ogata also had rivals within the party who were wary of his rising power and his plan for a JCIA is believed to have also stalled as a result of this struggle.
As a result, the left and the media, as targets of the Japanese police state, vehemently opposed plans to establish a JCIA in the early 1950s and forced its proponents to abandon this endeavor.