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(pŏm`əlō), or


(pum`məlō), citrus fruitcitrus fruits,
widely used edible fruits of plants belonging to Citrus and related genera of the family Rutaceae (orange family). Included are the tangerine, citrange, tangelo, orange, pomelo, grapefruit, lemon, lime, citron, and kumquat.
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 (Citrus paradisi) of the family Rutaceae (orangeorange,
name for a tree of the family Rutaceae (rue, or orange, family), native to China and Indochina, and for its fruit, the most important fresh fruit of international commerce.
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 family). The grapefruit is so named because it grows in grapelike bunches. The large globular fruit weighs from 1 to 5 lb (0.45–2.27 kg). It is believed that the progenitor of the grapefruit was the pomelo (C. maxima), native to and long a popular fruit in India and other parts of Asia. The pomelo (also called shaddock, for the man who first took it to England as a curiosity) was introduced into the West Indies, where it is thought that a seedling sport or mutation resulted in the grapefruit. Brought to Florida in 1809, the grapefruit had become an important commercial product of that state by the turn of the century. It is now grown in many varieties—chiefly in Florida, Texas, and California in the United States and also in some Mediterranean countries. The tree, an attractive evergreen, is usually propagated by budding. Like other citruses, it is prey to frost and hybridizes easily; the tangelo is a cross between the grapefruit and the tangerine. Furanocoumarins, chemicals found in grapefruit and grapefruit juice, inhibit the enzyme CYP3A4, which reduces the absorption of some drugs in the gastrointestinal tract; eating grapefruit or drinking grapefruit juice while taking those drugs can greatly increase their absorption, causing serious side-effects. Grapefruits are classified in the division MagnoliophytaMagnoliophyta
, division of the plant kingdom consisting of those organisms commonly called the flowering plants, or angiosperms. The angiosperms have leaves, stems, and roots, and vascular, or conducting, tissue (xylem and phloem).
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, class Magnoliopsida, order Sapindales, family Rutaceae.
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citrus blossoms

citrus blossoms

Beautifully scented waxy flowers with a citrusy lemon flavor. Don’t eat too many at one time.



or pomelo (Citrus paradisi), a fruit that grows in grapelike clusters, a fruit tree of the genus Citrus, family Rutaceae. Height, 15 m.

The leaves of the grapefruit are large, oval, and leathery, with alate petioles. The blossoms are white, bisexual, and single or in bunches of two to 20. The fruits are large (as much as 15 cm in diameter), round, slightly flattened, and single or in clusters of two to 15. The skin of the fruit is thick (about 1 cm), smooth, shiny, and pale yellow: it can be removed from the pulp only with difficulty and has a distinctive odor. The pulp is yellow or greyish-green, occasionally pink, and is very juicy and aromatic. The taste is bittersweet because of the presence of the bitter glycoside naringin. The fruit is composed of 88.5 to 90.9 percent water. 3.86 to 6.78 percent sugars, and 1.42 to 2.38 percent acid. The skin is composed of 9.19 to 19.04 percent pectic substances. Up to 45 mg of vitamin C are contained in 100 g of juice.

The fruit has dietetic and medicinal value. It stimulates the appetite and improves digestion and is used fresh for juice, jam, and stewed fruit. The average yield of a tree ten to 15 years old is 200 to 300 fruits. Grapefruit cultivation is developed everywhere in subtropical regions, including Georgia in the USSR. The best varieties are Duncan. Foster, and Marsh seedless. The Sukhumi experimental station for subtropical crops of the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Plant-Growing has introduced the relatively frost-resistant and early-ripening types Hybrid No. 1537 and Hybrid No. 2974. The agricultural technique of growing grapefruit is similar to that of the orange, lemon, and other citrus crops.


Zhukovskii, P. M. Kul’turnye rasteniia i ikh sorodichi, 2nd ed. Leningrad, 1964.


Citrus paradisi. An evergreen tree with a well-rounded top cultivated for its edible fruit, a large, globose citrus fruit characterized by a yellow rind and white, pink, or red pulp.


1. a tropical or subtropical cultivated evergreen rutaceous tree, Citrus paradisi
2. the large round edible fruit of this tree, which has yellow rind and juicy slightly bitter pulp
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