Jackson

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Jackson.

1 City (1990 pop. 37,446), seat of Jackson co., S Mich., on the Grand River; inc. 1857. It is an industrial and commercial center in a farm region. The city's chief manufactures are machinery, aerospace components, transportation and electronic equipment, food, metal products, and construction materials. Several automobile models were pioneered in Jackson in the early 20th cent. The first Republican party convention was held in the city on July 6, 1854. Nearby are Spring Arbor College and a state prison.

2 City (1990 pop. 196,637), state capital and seat of Hinds co., W central Miss., on the Pearl River; inc. 1833. It is the state's largest city and geographic center, with important rail, warehouse, and distribution operations. Industries include food processing and the manufacture of glass, paper, and metal products; lumber; machinery; consumer goods; furniture; and concrete. The site of the city, a trading post known as Le Fleur's Bluff near the Natchez TraceNatchez Trace,
road, from Natchez, Miss., to Nashville, Tenn., of great commercial and military importance from the 1780s to the 1830s. It grew from a series of Native American trails used in the 18th cent. by the French, English, and Spanish.
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, was chosen and laid out as the state capital in 1821 and named for Andrew JacksonJackson, Andrew,
1767–1845, 7th President of the United States (1829–37), b. Waxhaw settlement on the border of South Carolina and North Carolina (both states claim him). Early Career

A child of the backwoods, he was left an orphan at 14.
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. The first U.S. law giving property rights to married women was passed there in 1839. During the Civil War, Jackson was a military center for the Vicksburg campaignVicksburg campaign,
in the American Civil War, the fighting (Nov., 1862–July, 1863) for control of the Mississippi River. The Union wanted such control in order to split the Confederacy and to restore free commerce to the politically important Northwest.
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 and was largely destroyed by Sherman's forces in 1863. The old capitol (1839) is preserved as a museum; the new capitol was completed in 1903. Among the many points of interest are the governor's mansion (erected 1839); city hall, which was used as a hospital during the Civil War; a 220-acre (89-hectare) scale model of the Mississippi River flood control system; Mynelle's Gardens; Jackson Zoological Park; museums of art, natural history, and state history; a notable Confederate monument; Eudora WeltyWelty, Eudora,
1909–2001, American author, b. Jackson, Miss., grad. Univ. of Wisconsin, 1929. One of the important American regional writers of the 20th cent. and one of the finest short-story writers of any time or place, Welty usually wrote about the inhabitants of rural
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's home; and many antebellum houses. Belhaven College, Jackson State Univ., and the Univ. of Mississippi Medical Center are there, and nearby are Tougaloo College and Mississippi College. During the 1960s, Jackson was the scene of considerable racial unrest.

3 City (1990 pop. 48,949), seat of Madison co., W Tenn., on the South Fork of the Forked Deer River; founded by a nephew of Andrew Jackson, inc. 1823. It is a processing and rail shipping point for an extensive farm area. The city has railroad shops and industries that package food and produce textiles and consumer goods. Jackson's development as a trucking center has added to its economic strength. It is the seat of Lane College, Lambuth College, and Union Univ. Nearby are the West Tennessee Agricultural Experiment Station of the Univ. of Tennessee and a state park with Native American mounds. Casey JonesJones, Casey,
1864–1900, American locomotive engineer celebrated in ballad and song, probably b. Jordan, Fulton co., Ky. His real name was John Luther Jones, but at the age of 17 he went to Cayce, Ky.
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 is buried in Jackson; his home and the Casey Jones railroad museum are here. A tornado in 2003 severely damaged sections of the city.

Jackson

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1. Andrew. 1767--1845, US statesman, general, and lawyer; seventh president of the US (1829--37). He became a national hero after successfully defending New Orleans from the British (1815). During his administration the spoils system was introduced and the national debt was fully paid off
2. Colin (Ray). born 1967, British athlete, broke world record for 110 m hurdles in 1993 (12.91 seconds) and for the 60 m hurdles in 1994 (7.3 seconds)
3. Glenda. born 1936, British stage, film, and television actress, and Labour politician. Her films include Women in Love (1969) for which she won an Oscar, The Music Lovers (1970), Sunday Bloody Sunday (1971), and Turtle Diary (1985); became a member of parliament in 1992
4. Jesse (Louis). born 1941, US Democrat politician and clergyman; Black campaigner for minority rights
5. Michael (Joe). born 1958, US pop singer, lead vocalist with the Jacksons (originally the Jackson 5) (1969--86). His solo albums include Thriller (1982), Bad (1989), and Invincible (2001)
6. Peter. born 1961, US film director, screenwriter, and producer; his films include Heavenly Creatures (1994) and The Lord of the Rings trilogy (2001--03).
7. Thomas Jonathan, known as Stonewall Jackson. 1824--63, Confederate general in the American Civil War, noted particularly for his command at the first Battle of Bull Run (1861)

Jackson

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a city in and state capital of Mississippi, on the Pearl River. Pop.: 179 599 (2003 est.)