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(jăk`əbīts'), adherents of the exiled branch of the house of StuartStuart
or Stewart,
royal family that ruled Scotland and England. The Stuart lineage began in a family of hereditary stewards of Scotland, the earliest of whom was Walter (d. 1177), grandson of a Norman adventurer.
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 who sought to restore James IIJames II,
1633–1701, king of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1685–88); second son of Charles I, brother and successor of Charles II. Early Life
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 and his descendants to the English and Scottish thrones after the Glorious RevolutionGlorious Revolution,
in English history, the events of 1688–89 that resulted in the deposition of James II and the accession of William III and Mary II to the English throne. It is also called the Bloodless Revolution.
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 of 1688. They take their name from the Latin form (Jacobus) of the name James. Theoretical justification for the Stuart claim was found in the writings of the nonjurorsnonjurors
[Lat.,=not swearing], those English and Scottish clergymen who refused to break their oath of allegiance to James II and take the oath to William III after the Glorious Revolution of 1688.
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, who maintained the principles of hereditary succession and the divine right of kings. But the Stuarts' continued adherence to Roman Catholicism, the rash and incompetent leadership of their military ventures, and the duplicity of foreign courts cost the Jacobite cause much support.

After James II's Ouster

When William IIIWilliam III,
1650–1702, king of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1689–1702); son of William II, prince of Orange, stadtholder of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, and of Mary, oldest daughter of King Charles I of England.
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 and Mary IIMary II,
1662–94, queen of England, wife of William III. The daughter of James II by his first wife, Anne Hyde, she was brought up a Protestant despite her father's adoption of Roman Catholicism. In 1677 she married her cousin William of Orange and went with him to Holland.
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 ascended the throne after the flight of James II to France, strong Stuart partisans remained to offer rebellion. However, the death (1689) of John Graham, Viscount DundeeDundee, John Graham of Claverhouse, 1st Viscount
, 1649?–1689, Scottish soldier, known as Bonnie Dundee.
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, at Killiecrankie ended armed resistance in Scotland, and William III quashed Jacobite hopes in Ireland by his victory over James's forces at the battle of the BoyneBoyne,
river, c.70 mi (110 km) long, rising in the Bog of Allen, Co. Kildare, E Republic of Ireland, and flowing NE through Co. Meath, past Trim, to the Irish Sea near Drogheda. Salmon is caught in the river.
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 (1690). Thereafter the exiled English court in France became a center of intrigue for men like Henry St. JohnSt. John, Henry, Viscount Bolingbroke
, 1678–1751, English statesman. Political Rise

Although he was one of England's great orators, Bolingbroke was also an unstable profligate, and he was generally distrusted.
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, Viscount Bolingbroke, and others like him who were out of favor in London. At home many Roman Catholics, high churchmen, and extreme Tories adhered to the Stuart cause.

Under the Old Pretender

At the death (1701) of James II his son James Francis Edward StuartStuart or Stewart, James Francis Edward,
1688–1766, claimant to the British throne, son of James II and Mary of Modena; called the Old Pretender.
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, the Old Pretender, was recognized as James III by the courts of France and Spain and proclaimed by the Jacobites. An invasion of Scotland in 1708 by the new claimant proved totally abortive. Each subsequent attempt also failed, and in each the Jacobites were the dupes of French or Spanish policy. After the death (1714) of Queen Anne and the accession of the Hanoverian George I, there was the rising known by its date as "the '15." Led by the incompetent John Erskine, 6th earl of MarMar, John Erskine, 6th (or 11th) earl of,
1675–1732, Scottish nobleman, leader of the Jacobites. He was nicknamed "Bobbing John," probably because of his political vacillation.
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, it ended in the disastrous battles of Preston and Sheriffmuir. The Old Pretender, discredited by failure, retired first to Avignon and finally to Rome. Spain supported another Jacobite invasion of Scotland in 1719.

Under Bonnie Prince Charlie (the Young Pretender)

After the failure of the 1719 invasion of Scotland, hope lay dormant until the Old Pretender's son Charles Edward StuartStuart or Stewart, Charles Edward,
1720–88, claimant to the British throne, b. Rome. First son of James Francis Edward Stuart (the Old Pretender), he was known as Bonnie Prince Charlie and as the Young Pretender.
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 (the Young Pretender or Bonnie Prince Charlie) reached manhood. Acting on the assumption that renewed French hostility toward England would bring support for a Jacobite invasion, the prince rashly sailed for Scotland, raised the clans in what was called "the '45," and won an initial victory at Prestonpans in Sept., 1745. An advance into England stalled at Derby for lack of support from English Jacobites and French allies.

Despite Charles's objections, his council of war voted to retreat, an action skillfully managed by Lord George MurrayMurray, Lord George,
1694–1760, Scottish general. He took part in the risings of the Jacobites in 1715, 1719, and 1745. Although he foresaw the hopelessness of the 1745 uprising, he was one of Charles Edward Stuart's ablest commanders in the rebellion, serving him in the
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. Disaster followed for the Jacobites at the battle of Culloden Moor (1746). Charles escaped to France, and Stuart hopes were extinguished, although a claimant to the throne lived on until 1807, in the person of Henry StuartStuart or Stewart, Henry Benedict Maria Clement,
known as Cardinal York,
1725–1807, claimant to the British throne, b. Rome.
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, Cardinal York. Jacobite sympathies lingered, particularly in Scotland and Ireland, where Jacobitism had been practically synonymous with national discontent, but the movement ceased to be a serious political force.


Jacobite activities gave rise to much ballad literature and were the theme of such later literary works as Sir Walter Scott's Rob Roy, Waverley, and Redgauntlet, W. Thackeray's Henry Esmond, and R. L. Stevenson's Kidnapped. See also studies by G. P. Insh (1952), G. H. Jones (1954), J. C. M. Baynes (1970), F. McLynn (1981, 1985, and 1998), and C. Petrie (rev. ed. 1988).

References in periodicals archive ?
1708: The Jacobites sought to put James's son James Francis Edward on the throne through a quickly defeated rebellion which saw no actual fighting on mainland Britain.
James VII and II, his son James (who succeeded him as Jacobite claimant in 1701), and his grandsons Charles and Henry believed that they were kings by divine right and clung to the Catholic faith that had cost them the throne in the expectation that God would eventually restore the proper order.
This was particularly the case when Britain was at or close to war, as it enabled the Jacobites to merge their cause with concurrent larger conflicts.
Overall, this is a book long overdue, because it raises the Jacobite court to its rightful place in history.
Now one of only 40 known examples of an Amen Jacobite drinking glass, celebrating the movement that plotted against the protestant kings of the 17th and 18th centuries, is to go up for auction next week.
As a result of the need for absolute secrecy, the Jacobites signalled their support with objects that were either small and easy to conceal, or decorated with intentionally obscure symbolic designs and inscriptions alluding to the cause.
Up to 160 captured Jacobites were put on trial before three judges.
Further Reading Murray Pittock, The Invention of Scotland: The Stuart Myth and the Scottish Identity, 1638 to the Present (Routledge 1991); Robin Nicholson, Bonnie Prince Charlie and the Making of a Myth (Lewisburg and London, 2002); Bruce Lenman, The Jacobite Risings in Britain, 1689-1746 (Scottish Cultural Press, 1995); Frank McLynn, Bonnie Prince Charlie (Pimlico, 2003); Daniel Szechi, The Jacobites.
The ship is thought to have been carrying gold from Louis XV of France to Bonnie Prince Charlie while he was hiding on the Scottish Islands after the failed Jacobite Rebellion of 1745/46.
It is the day when the Christ entered Jerusalem City with his followers as the king of the world and he entered the Jerusalem church," said Father Varghese Kalappara, a parish of Saint Thomas Jacobites Church Parish.
At the same time, the country is tracking down Jacobites, people who are critical of King George.