Jacques Roumain


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Roumain, Jacques

 

Born June 4, 1907, in Port-au-Prince; died there Aug. 18, 1944. Haitian political figure; writer.

Roumain was of an aristocratic family and was educated in Switzerland, France, England, and Spain. In 1927 he returned to Haiti, where he became a leader in the liberation struggle of the Haitian people against the American occupation (1915–34). His sharp publicistic articles exhorted the people to struggle against the occupiers. He founded the League of Haitian Patriotic Youth, which brought together progressive students, and was elected honorary chairman of the Federation of Youth.

One of the founders of the journal La Revue indigène (1926–27), Roumain was a leading figure in those years in the left wing of the “indigenism” literary movement, which emphasized folk tradition and African Negro elements in national culture. Arrested in 1929 in connection with his writing, Roumain made a speech at the trial against the ruling clique. In the work Schematic Analysis 1932–34 he analyzed the problems besetting Haitian society from a Marxist viewpoint. In 1934 he founded the Haitian Communist Party and became the party’s general secretary. A few months later the party was outlawed, and Roumain was sentenced to three years’ imprisonment. After his release, he left for Europe, where he continued to direct the illegal activities of the party. In 1939 he moved to the USA, then to Martinique and Cuba. In 1941 he returned home. Roumain was repeatedly arrested and exiled for revolutionary activities.

Roumain’s early prose—the collections The Prey and the Shadow (1930) and The Marionettes (1931)—concentrated on the plight of the Haitian intelligentsia during the years of occupation. His novella The Enchanted Mountain (1931) presented a tragic picture of a dying countryside. Roumain’s major work was the novel Masters of the Dew, which was translated into many languages; it was the first work to introduce the figure of a socialist revolutionary in the poverty-stricken Haitian countryside, which is realistically depicted. Roumain’s poetry was distinctive and complex, ranging from the passionate, publicis-tic “The Black Wood” and “Dirty Negroes” to the subtle lyricism of his shorter poems. In his mature poetry, a sense of racial solidarity with oppressed Negroes throughout the world was combined with ideas of internationalism and solidarity with the working people of all nations. Roumain was also the author of works on the ethnography of Haiti.

WORKS

Oeuvres choisies. [Moscow, 1964.] (Introduced by J. S. Alexis.)
In Russian translation:
“Khoziaeva rosy.” Inostrannaia literatura, 1956, no. 1.
“Chernoe derevo, Groza, Gvineia, Griaznye negry.” In the collection Vremia plameneiushchikh derev’ev. [Foreword by E. Gal’perina.] Moscow, 1961.

REFERENCES

Genezis sotsialisticheskogo realizma ν literaturakh stran Zapada. Moscow, 1965.
Gal’perina, E. “Zhak Rumen.” In Sovremennaia literatura za rubezhom: Literaturno-kriticheskie stat’i, sb. 2. Moscow, 1966.
Gaillard, R. L’Univers romanesque de J. Roumain. Port-au-Prince [1965].

S. I. LUKINA and V. F. CHESNOKOV

References in periodicals archive ?
Thinking in Public: Faith, Secular Humanism, and Development in Jacques Roumain.
La reponse a la question implicite de Lherisson, c'est Jacques Roumain qui viendra, dans Gouverneurs de la rosee, commencer a nous la devoiler.
His analysis of Leon Laleau, Jean Price-Mars, and Jacques Roumain elaborates on Jules de Gaultier's term bovarysme, and its various articulations in Haiti.
Essentially, Frydman's position suggests that much as Carpentier and others like him such as Jacques Roumain, Nicolas Guillen, and Luis Pales Matos unwittingly consolidate the stereotyping of African diaspora cultures as limited to the mere spectacle: music, dance, and spirituality which they personify as a rejection of European cultural imperialism.
Emphasizing the testimonial nature of Danticat's fiction he draws comparisons between her focus on giving voice to the Haitian peasant and the work of Jacques Roumain.
Once the scene has been reclaimed for the washerwomen in the painting, Tinsley sets out to re-imagine how these women might both view and interact with each other and their natural surroundings to capture what the Haitian writer Jacques Roumain called "the spring of [a woman's] look," an expression that conveys the inextricable relationship between a feminized landscape (in anthropomorphic terms) and a woman whose attributes in turn invite comparison to nature.
Marxist opposition, led early on by Jacques Roumain and Max Hudicourt, argued that class hierarchy caused inequality in Haiti; they posited that color conflict simply masked deeper issues.
Dans Gouverneurs de la rosee (1946), de Jacques Roumain, l'etre-negre est associe a une predisposition pour la danse :
The last two examples are Hughes's translations of "When the Tom-Tom Beats" and "Guinea," by Jacques Roumain, a Haitian poet and novelist whom Hughes first met briefly in 1931, and a close associate of Damas, whom Roumain met while he was at the Institute of Ethnology in Paris.
These intellectuals appreciated the poetry of Etzer Vilaire, Normil Sylvain, and Leon Laleau, and the writings of Jean Price-Mars, Jacques Roumain, and Jacques-Stephen Alexis.
Gouverneurs de la rosee (Masters of the Dew) by Jacques Roumain (1907-1944), (Reynal & Hitchcock, 1947) is one of Haiti's bestknown novels.
Then, reminded of the verse, "Then they spat in his face and struck him," the reader encounters a translation of a very important poem by Jacques Roumain, a Haitian poet and one of the leading spokesmen of the Negritude movement.