Ormonde, James Butler, 12th earl and 1st duke of

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Ormonde, James Butler, 12th earl and 1st duke of

(ôr`mənd), 1610–88, Irish statesman, most powerful royalist influence in Ireland during the English civil warEnglish civil war,
1642–48, the conflict between King Charles I of England and a large body of his subjects, generally called the "parliamentarians," that culminated in the defeat and execution of the king and the establishment of a republican commonwealth.
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. A ward of the crown after the death (1619) of his father, Viscount Thurles, he was brought up a Protestant and in 1629 he married the heiress of the earl of Desmond. In Ireland from 1633, Ormonde gained the favor of Thomas Wentworth (later 1st earl of StraffordStrafford, Thomas Wentworth, 1st earl of,
1593–1641, English statesman. Regularly elected to Parliament from 1614 on, he became one of the critics of George Villiers, 1st duke of Buckingham, and of the war with
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). In 1640, he was placed in command of the army in Ireland as lieutenant general. As lieutenant general, he fought the Irish rebels in 1641 and, although greatly hampered by the Irish lords justices, defeated the rebels at Killsalghen and Kilrush. He was made a marquess in 1642, again defeated (1943) the rebels, and, under orders from Charles I, concluded the treaty of "cessation," placing most of Ireland in the hands of the Confederate Catholics. He then served (1644–47) as lord lieutenant of Ireland, where he skillfully maintained himself against both Catholic rebels and the Protestant adherents of the English parliament. In 1647, however, he made terms with Parliament in order to restore peace in Ireland and gave up his office. He joined (1648) the queen and Prince Charles in Paris, but in 1649 he returned to Ireland and proclaimed the prince as King Charles II. Leaving the island at the insistence of Charles, he commissioned (1650) the earl of ClanricardeClanricarde, Ulick de Burgh, 5th earl and marquess of
, 1604–57, Irish Catholic nobleman. He assisted James Butler, 12th earl of Ormonde, in his attempt, during the English civil war, to unite Catholic and
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 as his deputy. Ormonde represented Charles in the negotiations preceding the Restoration, and after 1660 he was given numerous offices and titles, including privy councillor, lord high steward of England, earl of Brecknock (in the English peerage) and duke of Ormonde (Irish; also English in 1682). Again lord lieutenant of Ireland, he worked to promote Irish trade and to effect the complicated business of restoration of property. He was unpopular with the Restoration court, especially with the 2d duke of BuckinghamBuckingham, George Villiers, 2d duke of,
1628–87, English courtier; son of the 1st duke. Brought up with the royal family and educated at Cambridge, he was a strong royalist in the English civil war.
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, who apparently instigated (1669) an unsuccessful attempt on Ormonde's life. Ormonde was removed (1669) as lord lieutenant but was restored to office in 1677. Because of his mild anti-Catholic measures at the time of the Popish Plot (see Oates, TitusOates, Titus,
1649–1705, English conspirator. An Anglican priest whose whole career was marked with intrigue and scandal, he joined forces with one Israel Tonge to invent the story of the Popish Plot of 1678.
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), he was attacked by the 1st earl of ShaftesburyShaftesbury, Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st earl of,
1621–83, English statesman. In the English civil war he supported the crown until 1644 but then joined the parliamentarians.
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. He was again removed from the lord lieutenancy in 1684 as a result of intrigue. Thereafter he emerged from retirement only to oppose James II's attempt to dispense with the anti-Catholic laws. He survived his son, the earl of Ossory, and was succeeded by his grandson. In an age of complex loyalties, Ormonde directed his considerable talents to the support of the Stuarts, except when opposition to Parliament seemed hopeless.

Bibliography

See biographies by T. Carte (6 vol., 1851) and Lady Burghclere (2 vol., 1912).