James Ward


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Ward, James

 

Born Jan. 27, 1843, in Hull, Yorkshire; died Mar. 4, 1925, in Cambridge. English psychologist and idealist philosopher.

Ward was a professor at Cambridge University from 1897. In his philosophy, he sharply criticized materialism, naturalism, and atomism as mechanical doctrines about the world; in their place he proposed a theistic viewpoint called the theory of spiritualistic monadism. He developed the idea of the qualitative differences between the kingdoms in nature; according to Ward, the real world is an aggregate of interacting “spirits,” or monads. According to V. I. Lenin’s evaluation, Ward “seizes upon the weak points in ’instinctive’ natural-scientific materialism” (Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 18, p. 297) and endeavors to use this to prove the philosophical untenability of materialism in general. In psychology Ward opposed evolutionism, psychophysical parallelism, and associationism. Following William James, Ward viewed the psychological subject as perceiving actively and selectively, thus emphasizing the significance of will and attention as the principal forms of mental activity.

WORKS

Naturalism and Agnosticism, vols. 1–2. London, 1899.
The Realm of Ends, or Pluralism and Theism. New York-Cambridge, 1911.
Psychological Principles. Cambridge, 1918.

REFERENCES

Bogomolov, A. S. Ideia razvitiia v burzhuaznoi filosofii 19 i 20 vv. [Moscow] 1962. Chapter 3, sec. 2.
Iaroshevskii, M. G. Istoriia psikhologii. Moscow, 1966.
Murray, H. The Philosophy of James Ward. London, 1936.

A. S. BOGOMOLOV

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References in classic literature ?
Dave Slotter leaned belligerently against the desk that barred the way to the private office of James Ward, senior partner of the firm of Ward, Knowles & Co.
James Ward wonderingly, until that gentleman broke his train of inchoate thought.
James Ward then concluded the performance by giving a song that always irresistibly rushed to his lips when he was engaged in fierce struggling or fighting.
After the satisfaction of his nights, a morning's sleep, and a breakfast of Lee Sing's, James Ward crossed the bay to San Francisco on a midday ferryboat and went to the club and on to his office, as normal and conventional a man of business as could be found in the city.
Thus it was that James Ward made a fresh and heroic effort to control the Teutonic barbarian that was half of him.
His guests rushed to possess him and acclaim him, but James Ward, suddenly looking out of the eyes of the early Teuton, saw the fair frail Twentieth Century girl he loved, and felt something snap in his brain.
Back row (left to right): Mathew Stephenson, Ben Langthorne, James Ward, Euan Gardiner, James Holmes.
James Ward, who teaches PE to pupils at Baverstock School, put on the costume as part of a sponsored walk at the school.
MONAGHAN duo James Ward and Rory Woods are pushing hard for recalls ahead of their round four qualifier tie.
When we closed it, we didn't know we were going to redevelop it to open it,'' said James Ward, principal grounds maintenance supervisor for the city's Recreation and Parks Department in the Valley.
Byline: With MAEVE QUIGLEY, DEMELZA de BURCA & JAMES WARD
With Andy Murray again choosing not to play, the captain included Bogdanovic alongside fellow singles players James Ward and Jamie Baker in his initial squad, but in the end stuck with the pair who led Britain to a first win in six matches against Turkey last summer.