Jan Christian Smuts

(redirected from Jan Smuts)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Wikipedia.
Related to Jan Smuts: Daniel Malan

Smuts, Jan Christian

 

Born May 24, 1870, on the farm Bovenplaats, near Riebeek West, Cape Colony; died Sept. 11, 1950, at Irene, near Pretoria. South African statesman. British field marshal (1941). Idealist philosopher.

The son of a wealthy Afrikaner landowner, Smuts graduated from Cambridge University. He was a Boer general during the Boer War (1899–1902) but later cooperated with the British forces. During World War I (1914–18) he directed operations against the Germans in Southwest and East Africa.

Smuts held a number of government posts in the Union of South Africa. He was minister of the interior and minister of mines from 1910 to 1912, minister of defense from 1910 to 1920, minister of finance in 1912 and 1913, and prime minister from 1919 to 1924. Smuts was later minister of justice from 1933 to 1939 and prime minister, minister of foreign affairs, and minister of defense from 1939 to 1948.

Smuts attended the Paris Peace Conference (1919–20) and helped draft the Covenant of the League of Nations. He was the initiator of the mandate system. Smuts carried out a policy of apartheid, or racial discrimination against the Negro population. In 1942 his government recognized the USSR, but in 1943 he upheld the creation of an anti-Soviet Western bloc. His political writings advocated racism.

Smuts originated the philosophy of holism, according to which a series of nonmaterial and unknowable wholes lies at the basis of evolution. An opponent of the materialist doctrine of evolution. Smuts approached Bergson’s idealist theory of creative evolution and C. Lloyd Morgan’s theory of emergent evolution.

WORKS

Holism and Evolution. New York, 1926.
Plans for a Better world. London, 1942.

REFERENCES

Bogomolov, A. S. Ideia razvitiia ν burzhuaznoi filosofii XIX i XX vekov. Moscow, 1962. Pages 320-35.
Kremianskii, V. I. Strukturnye urovni zhivoi materii. Moscow, 1969. Pages 47-52.
Crafford, F. S. Jan Smuts: A Biography. New York, 1945.
Williams, B. Botha, Smuts and South Africa. New York, 1948. [23–1872–]
References in periodicals archive ?
Dropped back to a mile and six furlongs at Redcar last time, Jan Smuts again lost little in defeat at the hands of Blue Top, conceding weight to the winner and posting arguably a career-best effort in the process.
4) "General Jan Smuts Hero or Villain," Writing, Inc, http://www.
Louis Botha and Jan Smuts said as much and publicly censured Beyers for his "loose talk".
Gulf Air, EgyptAir, THY of Turkey and Israel's El Al already operate regular twice-weekly flights to Jan Smuts Airport in Johannesburg.
Jan Smuts Avenue and Bolton Road Rosebank, Johannesburg, South Africa Tel: 011-27-11-343-2000 Fax: 011-27-11-880-7080
The disappointment was 2-1 favourite Jan Smuts, who hit 1.
Jan Smuts, demon Boer general in 1900, much-praised ally and guest of royals a few years later.
While he has not won since claiming an amateur riders' event at Musselburgh in May, Jan Smuts has certainly been holding his own for trainer Wilf Storey, bouncing back from a mid-season low to be trouble the judge again lately.
Dit plaas hom dan ook in die geselskap van ander Afrikaanse filosoof-politici, soos Jan Smuts, Dawie de Villiers maar helaas ook D.
As revealed by the book's first chapter, the segregationist South African politician Jan Smuts, a firm believer in the British Empire, played a crucial role in the ideological origins of the UN.
He begins and ends with two statesmen of the late British empire, South African Prime Minister Jan Smuts, who was a white supremacist and Anglophile, and Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, who used the UN as a forum for combating imperialist rule.