John III Sobieski

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John III Sobieski


Born Aug. 17, 1629, in Olesko; died June 17, 1696, in Wilanów. King of Poland from 1674.

As grand hetmán of the crown, Sobieski commanded the Polish troops in the Polish-Turkish War of 1672–76; he crushed a Turkish army in a battle at Khotin on Nov. 11, 1673. He was elected king by the Sejm after this victory. In April 1683 he entered into an alliance with the Austrian Hapsburgs to oppose Turkish aggression; coming to the aid of the Austrians, he routed the Turks in a battle near Vienna on Sept. 12, 1683.

Sobieski drew Russia into the anti-Turkish coalition by concluding with Russia the Eternal Peace of 1686. Sobieski attempted to establish a hereditary monarchy in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth but encountered resistance from the Polish magnates and opposition from Austria and Brandenburg.

References in periodicals archive ?
Poland in the 17th century under King Jan Sobieski was the breadbasket of Europe, and Jews were often the bakers during this golden age.
It was described as a gift from Pope Innocent XI to Jan Sobieski HI, made to mark the Polish king's victory against the Turks in Vienna in 1683, and housed in the Capuchins' church in Cracow.
Turkish forces passed by here on the way to their 1683 defeat at the gates of Vienna by Jan Sobieski.