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Jansenism:

see under Jansen, CornelisJansen, Cornelis
, 1585–1638, Dutch Roman Catholic theologian. He studied at the Univ. of Louvain and became imbued with the idea of reforming Christian life along the lines of a return to St. Augustine.
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Jansenism

 

an unorthodox current in French and Dutch Catholicism; part of the wave of individualistic mysticism that spread through Western Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries, chiefly affecting the educated townspeople.

The stimulus for the emergence of Jansenism was the publication in 1640 of a work about Augustine by the Dutch theologian C. Jansen. True faith was sharply contrasted by Jansen to the masses’ formal acceptance of church doctrine; his assertion that Christ had not shed his blood for all people was in line with the Calvinist doctrine, of predestination. In 1642, Jansen’s book was condemned by Pope Urban VIII, and in 1653 a bull by Innocent X condemned some of Jansen’s theses; nevertheless, the “disciples of St. Augustine” continued their struggle while remaining within the Catholic Church.

In France, J. Duvergier de Hauranne, known as Abbé de Saint-Cyran, made the Abbey of Port-Royal de Paris a stronghold of Jansenism; the abbey became an important center of French culture in the second half of the 17th century. The repressions against the Jansenists, their staunchness in the face of royal despotism and Jesuit church policy, and their ethical uncompromisingness attracted B. Pascal and A. Arnauld; the latter headed the Port-Rȯyal community and was coauthor, with P. Nicole, of the theory known as Port-Royal logic. J. Racine was another author who leaned toward Jansenism.

Jansenism created a type of person who was intellectually developed, with a high sense of moral responsibility but also with a fanatical sectarian narrowmindedness. In France, the movement died out after the French Revolution. In the Netherlands, by 1723 the Jansenists had succeeded in establishing their own church, which in the 19th century drew close to the German Old Catholics; the various reforms enacted by the church in the 20th century, such as the elimination of fasting and of celibacy for the clergy, brought it closer to Protestantism. Jansenism survives to this day.

REFERENCES

Gazier, A. Histoire générale du mouvement janséniste depuis ses origines jusqu’á nos Iours, 3rd ed. Paris, 1922–24.
Cognet, L. Le Jansénisme. Paris, 1961.

S. S. AVERINTSEV

Jansenism

unorthodox Roman Catholic movement of the 17th and 18th centuries led by Cornelius Jansen. [Christian Hist.: EB, V: 515]
References in periodicals archive ?
This approach is typified by Philippe Hecquet, a physician and conservative Jansenist who repeatedly took up the pen on this subject in works like Le Naturalisme des convulsions (1733) and Lettre sur la convulsionnaire en extase, ou La vaporeuse en reve (1736)--the latter a short, sarcastic response to the Requete de Charlotte de la Porte au parlement (1735), written by a woman who claimed to have performed miracle cures while convulsing on the tomb of Francois de Paris (the ascetic monk revered as a saint by some in the Jansenist movement) and who had been both imprisoned and libelled for her claims.
He is a kind of priestly interlocutor between his Jansenist Christ and the writer-detective, hiding the "absurd" secret of Harry Lime's empty grave.
Urged by his Jesuit confessor Ravago who supported the acts of his Jesuit brothers, Ferdinand VI instead employed regalist measures to defy the papal response and make clear the monarchy's position against such doctrine considered Jansenist.
A long section of the book is devoted to analyzing some key concepts of the Jansenist doctrine: the everyday marvelous, the gratia efficax, and the hidden God.
While Nicholas Hammond's exploration of the culture of teaching in the Jansenist community of Port-Royal is insightful, particularly as a means of understanding the works of Racine, who was educated in its schools, there is little on the meaning of magic in the discussion.
They participated actively in the political and religious debates in Ireland, most especially during the years of the Catholic Confederation, which were marked by the emergence of a politically accommodationist Jansenist 'party' associated with the Duke of Ormond.
Protestants, forced into exile suffered the fierce repression reintroduced by Louis XV, while Catholicism was going through the Jansenist crisis.
In any case, subsequent to that night of conversion Pascal became a strict moralist of Jansenist persuasion.
She leads us by the hand through the letters, cardinals, loyalties, phobias, and chateaux, the thickets of Jansenist and Jesuit, the pseudonyms and the sex scandals and the Fronde.
Sometimes the proportionate use of space is odd, as with long articles on the Convulsionaries (an eighteenth-century Jansenist sect) and the Cooneyites, also known as the Black Stockings and the Nameless House Church (a twentieth-century fundamentalist movement), but no separate treatment of Anglican churches in Nigeria, Uganda, or Kenya.
It will be recalled that Bernard Dorival's important monograph of 1976--with which Pericolo disagrees on a variety of matters--was positively Jansenist in its austerity, and did not include a single colour reproduction.
However, one of the few vernacular titles was an early edition of Antoine Arnauld's De la frequente communion (Paris, 1644), an item complementing the Newberry's strong Jansenist holdings.