Japanization


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Japanization

the adoption of Japanese organizational practices by organizations in other societies. The key elements include JUST-IN-TIME supplier relations and stockless production; continuous improvement and zero-defects; TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT and quality circles; employee involvement, training and lifetime employment; corporate welfare, seniority wage systems and enterprise unions. Two broad issues are raised in debates about Japanization. The first issue centres on the model of Japanese practices which are supposedly being transferred to other societies. In this respect differences can be observed between those theorists who use a broad and/or static model which contextualize it within Japanese society, and those who employ a more restricted model of Japanese practices which are seen to have emerged incrementally. Those using the former model find, perhaps not surprisingly little evidence for Japanization in the UK whilst those using the latter are more open-minded (Wood, 1991; Ackroyd et al., 1988). The second issue concerns an evaluation of the benefits of Japanization. Those theorists who use a ‘received’ (some would say idealized) model point to the many advantages which flow from worker empowerment, transformed employee attitudes and industrial relations, FLEXIBLE PRODUCTION systems (see FORDISM AND POST-FORDISM), innovative capacity, and the efficient production of quality artefacts. Other theorists suggest that ‘reality’ is somewhat different. In particular, Japanese practices are perceived as Neo-Fordist systems which:
  1. reduce worker autonomy through systematic surveillance and lateral pressure in ways which involve work intensification;
  2. shift some of the costs and problems of production onto 'S queezed’ smaller suppliers; and
  3. involve a dual economy in which employees in the supplying firms are unprotected and poorly paid due, in part, to the need of larger firms to offset the cost of using practices such as permanent employment and seniority pay systems.
References in periodicals archive ?
On the other hand, consumers are also quite cognizant of globalization trends and the 'Americanization' of products, even though it is Finnishization and Germanization and Japanization as well.
The process of the Japanization accounting system is characterized as policymaking influenced by considerations such as convenience, profitability, and expediency.
For example, until recent time, naturalization had to be accompanied by adopting Japanese-style names and notable Japanization of the applicant's lifestyle (see for example, Kim Yong-dal 1990 and for the comment of the Ministry of Justice, Inaba 1975).
20 Nick Oliver and Barry Wilkinson, The Japanization of British Industry: New Developments in the 1990s (Oxford, 1992), chaps.
The rise of Nintendo and the Japanization of the game business that occurred in the late 1980s created perhaps the most extensive import of foreign culture that has happened in America other than through immigration.
Earlier than most, he saw the possibility of regionalization or bloc formation in the world-economy as attempts to deal with the global crisis, including the accelerated Japanization of Asia as the United States sank deeper into the predicaments of a hegemonic power.
Shively, "The Japanization of the Middle Meiji," in Donald H.
Also, NextGen provides Japanization support for foreign vendors of SoftSwitches, Media Servers and Application Servers.
These policies supported Japan's war mobilization in Taiwan and emphasized Japanization.
From 1943, a general movement towards Japanization took place (Bigler 1947; Baier 1998:51).
The ruling class has used baseball to implement their own political agendas, including Japanization, Sinification and, most recently, Taiwanization.
The Japanization of British Industry - New Developments in the 90s, Blackwell, Oxford, 1992.