Yaroslavl

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Yaroslavl

(yərəslä`vəl), city (1991 est. pop. 640,000), capital of Yaroslavl region, E European Russia, on the upper Volga River. It is a river port, a major rail junction, and a center of industry, tourism, and commerce. Yaroslavl has linen and leather factories dating from the 17th cent. and textile mills dating from the 18th. Other industries include oil refining, printing, and the manufacture of machinery and diesel engines. According to tradition, the city was founded by YaroslavYaroslav
(Yaroslav the Wise) , 978–1054, grand duke of Kiev (1019–54); son of Vladimir I. Designated by his father to rule in Novgorod, he became grand duke of Kiev after defeating his older brother Sviatopolk, who succeeded Vladimir I.
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 in 1010, although it was not mentioned in the chronicles until 1071. In 1218 it became the capital of the independent Yaroslavl principality, which was absorbed by Moscow in 1463. The city flourished during the 16th and 17th cent. as a commercial center on the Moscow-Arkhangelsk route from the White Sea to the Middle East. During the "Time of Troubles" (see RussiaRussia,
officially the Russian Federation,
Rus. Rossiya, republic (2005 est. pop. 143,420,000), 6,591,100 sq mi (17,070,949 sq km). The country is bounded by Norway and Finland in the northwest; by Estonia, Latvia, Belarus, and Ukraine in the west; by Georgia
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), Yaroslavl served briefly (Mar.–July, 1612) as Russia's capital. In 1564 the first modern Russian ships were built at Yaroslavl, and in 1722 it became the site of Russia's first cloth factory. It was a major Russian manufacturing city by the 18th cent., notably for textiles. F. G. Volkov (1729–63), regarded as the founder of the Russian theater, organized his first dramatic performance in Yaroslavl in 1750. Until the construction of the Moscow-Volga Canal in 1937, the city served as Moscow's Volga port. Yaroslavl's landmarks include the 12th-century Spaso-Preobrazhenski Monastery, several 17th-century churches, and the Volkov theater (1911).

Yaroslavl

 

a city and the administrative center of Yaroslavl Oblast, RSFSR. Situated on the Volga, Yaroslavl is a major river port and a junction of highways and of railroad lines to Moscow, Vologda, Rybinsk, Kostroma, and Kirov. Population, 592,000 (1978; 72,000 in 1897, 309,000 in 1939, 407,000 in 1959, 517,000 in 1970). Area, 143 sq km. The city is divided into five raions.

Yaroslavl was founded circa 1010 by Prince Iaroslav the Wise. The city is first mentioned in the chronicles under an entry for the year 1071. In 1218 it became the capital of the Yaroslavl Principality, and in 1463 it was incorporated into the Grand Principality of Moscow. During the struggle against Polish intervention, the people’s volunteer corps of Minin and Pozharskii was in Yaroslavl from April through July 1612. It was in Yaroslavl that the all-Russian state body called the Council of the Whole Land was formed.

In the 17th century Yaroslavl was a trade and handicrafts center. In accordance with an ukase promulgated by Peter the Great in 1722, the construction of the Yaroslavl Textile Works was undertaken. The city became an important industrial center in the 18th century. Yaroslavl was incorporated into St. Petersburg Province in 1710 and became the administrative center of a provintsiia (subprovince) in 1719. In 1727, Yaroslavl was incorporated into Moscow Province. It became the capital of Yaroslavl Namestnichestvo (vice-gerency) in 1777 and of Yaroslavl Province in 1796. The Demidov Lycée was founded in Yaroslavl in 1805. Between 1870 and 1898 railroad lines were built connecting Yaroslavl with Moscow, Vologda, Kostroma, and St. Petersburg, and in 1913 a railroad bridge across the Volga was built.

Yaroslavl, whose industries included textile production and food processing, had the eighth largest labor force in Russia. In 1895, A. M. Stopani organized the city’s first Marxist circle. In 1901, Yaroslavl became a center of the Northern Workers’ Union, which was later reorganized as the Northern Committee of the RSDLP. During the Revolution of 1905–07 the struggle of the workers of Yaroslavl was led by Ia. M. Sverdlov, N. I. Podvoiskii, Ia. M. Iaroslavskii, and V. R. Menzhinskii. Soviet power was established in the city on Oct. 27 (Nov. 9), 1917. The Yaroslavl Revolt of 1918, staged by White Guards in the city, was suppressed by forces consisting mainly of workers and units of the Red Army.

During the Soviet period, Yaroslavl has become a major industrial center, the economy of which is based primarily on machine building, petroleum refining, light industry, the manufacture of chemical products, and the energy industry. The most important machine-building plants produce diesel engines for large trucks and tractors, fuel equipment, diesel equipment, electric machinery, electric oscillators (the Krasnyi Maiak Plant), refrigeration units, polymer-making machines, and woodworking equipment. The chemical industry is represented by the Lakokraska Association and by plants for the production of tires, synthetic rubber, carbon black, and rubber and asbestos articles. The Novoiaroslavskii Petroleum Refinery receives oil that is transported by pipeline from the east. Yaroslavl also has district heat and power plants, as well as enterprises for the manufacture of wood products, building materials, consumer goods, and food products. One of the oldest enterprises in the city is the Krasnyi Perekop Yaroslavl Industrial Fabrics Combine.

Yaroslavl was an important center of Russian art and architecture in the 13th through 17th centuries. The oldest surviving monuments, which date from the 16th century, are concentrated in the Spaso-Preobrazhenskii Monastery (seeSPASSKII YAROSLAVL MONASTERY).

An original local school of architecture and mural painting was formed in the city in the 17th century. Many of the works that were produced by the school are located in the historical center of Yaroslavl, which is on the high right bank of the Volga, where it receives the Kotorosl’ River; other works are in former slobody (settlements) beyond the Kotorosl’. Among the noteworthy structures produced by the school are the Nikola Nadein Church (1620–21, subsequently rebuilt, murals 1640–41), the Church of Elijah the Prophet (1647–50, murals 1680–81 by such artists as G. Nikitin and S. Savin of Kostroma and D. Semenov of Yaroslavl), the Church of St. John Chrysostom in the former sloboda of Korovniki, the Church of Nikola Mokryi (1665–72, murals 1673), and the Church of St. John the Precursor in the former sloboda of Tolchkovo. Noteworthy 17th-century stone residences include the Metropolitan’s Palace (the Assembly Building; 1680’s) and the Ivanov House.

In 1778 a general plan for the layout of Yaroslavl was completed; it mixed radial and semiradial elements and included many rectangular blocks with row buildings. The plan integrated the principal existing structures into a well-designed spatial composition; the street layout was oriented around the most important architectural monuments. The plan called for the creation of a new central area featuring three interconnected squares—Elijah Square (now Soviet Square), Parade Square (Demidov Square), and Cathedral Square (now the Strelka). Public and residential buildings in the classical style were built; these included state office buildings (1781–87, architect E. M. Levengagen), a gostinyi dvor (market building, 1813–18), the governor’s mansion (1820’s, architect P. Ia. Pan’kov), the Demidov Lycée (1788, architect E. M. Levengagen, rebuilt 1816 and 1825), and the Eparchial School (1818). Between 1825 and 1835 an esplanade was constructed along the Volga.

In the Soviet period, in 1936 and 1937, a general development plan was drawn up for Yaroslavl by such architects as N. V. Baranov. It represented an extension of the established plan and envisioned the creation of large residential areas west of the city center—on the left bank of the Volga and to the south, beyond the Kotorosl’. The construction of large complexes of residential and community service buildings was undertaken; in the 1930’s, for example; buildings designed by such architects as N. V. Baranov and I. I. Vinogradov were erected on vacant land near the rubber and asbestos combine.

In accordance with the most recent general plan, which was prepared by such architects as G. A. Bobovich and accepted in 1971, the central area is being further developed in the north, along the right and left banks of the Volga and across the Kotorosl’.

The 1960’s saw the beginning of the large new residential developments of Bragino in Severnyi Raion and Krasnyi Bor in Zavolzh’e Raion; the architects for the two areas included A. A. Labin, I. I. Lialiakina, and E. I. Khidirov. Large public buildings have been erected, including the Gigant Club of the tire plant (1934), the building that houses the oblast committee of the CPSU (1936, architect A. A. Matveeva), the Palace of Culture of the Motor Builders (1965; architect A. T. Mulik), the House of Fashion (1972, architect I. I. Voronina), and the river terminal (1976, architect T. P. Sadovskii).

Yaroslavl has two monuments to V. I. Lenin—one on Red Square (bronze and granite, 1939, sculptor V. V. Kozlov, architect S. V. Kapachinskii) and the other on Lenin Prospekt (bronze and granite, 1958, sculptor M. F. Listopad; architect V. F. Marov). Monuments have also been erected to N. A. Nekrasov (bronze, granite, and limestone, 1958, sculptor G. I. Motovilov, architect L. M. Poliakov), K. Marx (granite, 1972, architect E. I. Khidirov, sculptor L. E. Kerbel’), F. I. Tolbukhin (bronze and granite, 1972, sculptor Iu. G. Orekhov, architect E. I. Khidirov), and F. G. Volkov (bronze and granite, 1973, sculptor A. I. Solov’ev, architect V. F. Marov). Particularly noteworthy is a monument commemorating the heroism of the people of Yaroslavl in combat and labor during the Great Patriotic War of 1941–45 (granite, 1968, architect G. A. Zakharov, sculptor L. E. Kerbel’).

Among the city’s educational institutions are the University of Yaroslavl, a branch of the Moscow Agricultural Academy, polytechnic, medical, and pedagogical institutes, branches of the all-Union correspondence institutes for railroad transport engineering and for finance and economics, and 12 specialized secondary educational institutions, including automotive, light-industry, construction, railroad transport, Soviet trade, and chemical and mechanical technicums. The Spaso-Preobrazhenskii Monastery is now a historical-architectural museum-preserve. Yaroslavl has an art museum.

Yaroslavl has long been known for its theater. The formation of F. G. Volkov’s company in the city in 1750 marked the founding of the first public professional theater group in Russia. Some of Russia’s finest performers, including L. P. Nikulina-Kositskaia and P. A. Strepetova, belonged to the company, and others, such as V. I. Zhivokini, M. S. Shchepkin, A. E. Martynov, G. N. Fedotova, M. N. Ermolova, and K. S. Stanislavsky, performed in the city while on tour. K. N. Nezlobin and Z. A. Malinovskaia sponsored theater groups. As of 1978, in addition to the F. G. Volkov Yaroslavl Theater, the city had a puppet theater, a circus, and a philharmonic society (with a 1,000-seat concert hall).

In 1910, Yaroslavl had only five hospitals, with a total of 319 beds and 46 doctors. In 1940, however, the city had 17 hospitals, with 2,300 beds, and by Jan. 1, 1977, it had 29 hospitals, with 9,200 beds—that is, 15.8 beds per 1,000 inhabitants. By 1977 the city had 3,400 doctors, or one doctor per 168 inhabitants, as compared to a total of 367 doctors in 1940.

Yaroslavl has 272 preschool institutions, with a total capacity of 37,000 children. The city also has a medical institute (founded 1944) and medical schools.

REFERENCES

Golovshchikov, K. D. Istoriia goroda laroslavlia. Yaroslavl, 1899.
Dobrovol’skaia, E. D., and B. V. Gnedovskii. Iaroslavl’, Tutaev. [2nd ed. Moscow, 1971.]
Kozlov, F. I. Iaroslavl: Putevoditel’. Yaroslavl, 1974.
Arapov, E. V. Iaroslavl’: Putevoditel’. Moscow, 1976.

Yaroslavl

a city in W Russia, on the River Volga: a major trading centre since early times and one of the first industrial centres in Russia; textile industries were established in the 18th century. Pop.: 609 000 (2005 est.)