Toussaint's replacement, the hard-line Jean-Jacques Dessalines
, massacred many of the treacherous whites on the island on the way to establishing an independent and free-state Haiti in 1804.
Though the revolution, inspired by Toussaint L'Ouverture and commanded by General Jean-Jacques Dessalines
after L'Ouverture's capture by the French, earned Haiti its independence, the ferocity of the rebels so frightened the rest of the world that Haiti remained an isolated country without diplomatic recognition.
If Jean-Jacques Dessalines
, the liberator and first president of Haiti, were alive today Aliodor says, he would lead the people in a revolution against the government, foreign soldiers and other foreigners who a year on, still are not really helping people to get their lives back to any normality.
Toussaint l'Ouverture, Jean-Jacques Dessalines
, and Henri Christophe organized the slaves into effective military units who not only conquered most of the colony, but defeated an attempted British invasion in 1798.
The first two Haitian presidents died violently: Jean-Jacques Dessalines
by assassination and Henri Christophe by suicide.
Another downtown library, at the seminary Les Freres de l'Instruction Chretienne, contains letters penned by revolutionary leaders Toussaint Louverture and Jean-Jacques Dessalines
, books from French missionaries, and documents by statesmen and ex-presidents who still influence Haitian politics, according to historians.
1804: Haitian rebels under Jean-Jacques Dessalines
win independence from France.
French troops surrendered to forces led by Jean-Jacques Dessalines
Among black authors, Louverture's son Isaac wrote an interesting memoir on his participation in the Leclerc expedition and Jean-Jacques Dessalines
published two accounts of the capture of Port-au-Prince and Cap Francais in 1803.
, Toussaint's successor, led the colony to this independence on January 1, 1804.
Here he was left to starve to death and never saw Jean-Jacques Dessalines
lead the Haitian slaves to victory over the French.
Florence Alexis' ancestor Jean-Jacques Dessalines
was a former slave who forced the French out of Haiti and declared it an independent black republic.