Jean Jacques Dessalines

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Dessalines, Jean Jacques


Born around 1760; died Oct. 17, 1806, near Port-au-Prince. One of the leaders of the rebellion of Haitian Negroes and mulattoes for independence from France.

A Negro, until 1790 he was the slave of one Dessalines, whose last name he adopted. In 1791, Dessalines took part in a rebellion of Negro slaves and mulattoes against the plantation owners and soon became one of the closest aides of the leader of the rebellion, F. Toussaint-L’Ouverture. After the capture of Toussaint-L’Ouverture by the French in 1802, Dessalines continued to lead the rebellion until the French were driven from Haiti and the country’s independence was declared (January 1804). At the end of 1804 he proclaimed himself emperor of Haiti under the name Jacob I. He began to distribute land among Negroes and mulattoes, evoking the wrath of the large landowners. Dessalines was killed by conspirators.

References in periodicals archive ?
Figueroa's consideration of Walcott's treatment of Jean-Jacques Dessalines highlights a nagging theme, the pitfalls of utilitarian invocation of the Revolution, as a "floating signifier" that has been "used, reinvented, or imagined" (pp.
They will also prompt a revision of the genealogy of modern science that, beyond Comte's, must include the radical poetics and politics of Haiti's first leader, Jean-Jacques Dessalines, the magico-religious beliefs of the Haitian peasantry, and the magical tricks of an anonymous young Haitian girl.
Their topics include the life of Louis Felix Boisrond-Tonnerre, living by metaphor in the Haitian Declaration of Independence, whether Jean-Jacques Dessalines planned to export the Haitian revolution, American merchants and diplomacy after the Haitian Declaration of Independence, the sovereign people of Haiti during the 18th and 19th centuries, and revolutionary commemorations: Jean-Jacque Dessalines and Haitian Independence Day 1804-1904.
The defeat of French troops at the turn of the 19th century by revolutionary leaders Toussaint Louverture and Jean-Jacques Dessalines established the Haitian military as a genuine force to be reckoned with, and saw the former colony become the first free slave nation.
Toussaint's replacement, the hard-line Jean-Jacques Dessalines, massacred many of the treacherous whites on the island on the way to establishing an independent and free-state Haiti in 1804.
Though the revolution, inspired by Toussaint L'Ouverture and commanded by General Jean-Jacques Dessalines after L'Ouverture's capture by the French, earned Haiti its independence, the ferocity of the rebels so frightened the rest of the world that Haiti remained an isolated country without diplomatic recognition.
He points first to the divisive interference of the Spanish and French colonial orders, and, later, to the shortsightedness of leaders from both sides of the island, chiefly Jean-Jacques Dessalines, Louis Ferrand, and Juan Sanchez Ramirez (176).
If Jean-Jacques Dessalines, the liberator and first president of Haiti, were alive today Aliodor says, he would lead the people in a revolution against the government, foreign soldiers and other foreigners who a year on, still are not really helping people to get their lives back to any normality.
Toussaint l'Ouverture, Jean-Jacques Dessalines, and Henri Christophe organized the slaves into effective military units who not only conquered most of the colony, but defeated an attempted British invasion in 1798.
The first two Haitian presidents died violently: Jean-Jacques Dessalines by assassination and Henri Christophe by suicide.
Another downtown library, at the seminary Les Freres de l'Instruction Chretienne, contains letters penned by revolutionary leaders Toussaint Louverture and Jean-Jacques Dessalines, books from French missionaries, and documents by statesmen and ex-presidents who still influence Haitian politics, according to historians.
1804: Haitian rebels under Jean-Jacques Dessalines win independence from France.