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(also Zheguli), hills on the right bank of the Volga, skirted by a bend in the river (the so-called Samara Oxbow), in Kuibyshev Oblast, RSFSR. Elevation, to 375 m. Length, approximately 75 km.

The Zhiguli Hills are the southern, uplifted side of a fault, extending in a latitudinal direction. The hills’ slope facing the Volga is deeply cut by gorges and ravines. Composed mainly of limestones and dolomites, the Zhiguli Hills have oil deposits that are a part of the Volga-Ural oil and gas region. There are also deposits of building limestones and asphalt. On the northern slopes are broad-leaved and pine forests, while forest-steppe flora dominates on the southern. At the northern end of the Samara Oxbow, in the vicinity of the Zhiguli, is the V. I. Lenin Volga Hydroelectric Power Plant.

In folk legends and songs the Zhiguli Hills are associated with the name of Stepan Razin, the leader of a 17th-century peasant uprising. The Zhiguli Hills with their picturesque landscape attract many tourists.



a passenger car with a small engine displacement, manufactured at the Volga Automobile Works (in the town of Tol’iatti, in Kuibyshev Oblast). Production (of the model VAZ-2101) started in 1970. The car seats five and is light in weight (890 kg). The all-metal sedan body features integral body-frame construction. The power rating of the four-cycle, four-cylinder carbureted engine is 45.6 kilowatts (62 hp). The rearwheels are driving. Maximum speed with a full load is 140 km/hr. Fuel consumption is 8–10 liters per 100 km. The automobile is designed for operation at ambient air temperatures from +50° to -40°C. Auxiliary systems for the engine permit starting without a warm-up at a temperature of -25°C. Servicing requires little labor: movable joints (for instance, in suspensions) are designed to function without special care, and the engine coolant does not require replacement for two years. High-grade synthetic materials are used for interior finish. An effective ventilating and heating system provides adequate air replacement and maintains an interior temperature of up to 25°C (at -25°C outside). Hydraulic telescopic shock absorbers for wheel suspensions significantly increase smoothness of the ride.

Active safety features of the automobile include antiroll bars (which promote lateral stability and reduce roll of the body during turns), separate hydraulic systems (on front and rear brakes), and a pressure regulator for the hydraulic system (depending on the load on the rear axle). Passive safety features include safety belts, recessed door handles, and padding on the roof, visors, instrument panel, and elbow rests. Some of the cars are equipped with burglar-proof locks, protective plates for the crankcase, and a radio receiver with telescopic antenna.

Production of an improved model, VAZ-2103, was started in 1972. This model has an engine with a power rating of 55.1 kilowatts (75 hp).