Jim Crow laws

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Jim Crow laws,

in U.S. history, statutes enacted by Southern states and municipalities, beginning in the 1880s, that legalized segregation between blacks and whites. The name is believed to be derived from a character in a popular minstrel song. The Supreme Court ruling in 1896 in Plessy v. Ferguson that separate facilities for whites and blacks were constitutional encouraged the passage of discriminatory laws that wiped out the gains made by blacks during Reconstruction. Railways and streetcars, public waiting rooms, restaurants, boardinghouses, theaters, and public parks were segregated; separate schools, hospitals, and other public institutions, generally of inferior quality, were designated for blacks. By World War I, even places of employment were segregated, and it was not until after World War II that an assault on Jim Crow in the South began to make headway. In 1950 the Supreme Court ruled that the Univ. of Texas must admit a black, Herman Sweatt, to the law school, on the grounds that the state did not provide equal education for him. This was followed (1954) by the Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kans., declaring separate facilities by race to be unconstitutional. Blacks in the South used legal suits, mass sit-ins, and boycotts to hasten desegregation. A march on Washington by over 200,000 in 1963 dramatized the movement to end Jim Crow. Southern whites often responded with violence, and federal troops were needed to preserve order and protect blacks, notably at Little Rock, Ark. (1957), Oxford, Miss. (1962), and Selma, Ala. (1965). The Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965, and the Fair Housing Act of 1968 finally ended the legal sanctions to Jim Crow. See affirmative actionaffirmative action,
in the United States, programs to overcome the effects of past societal discrimination by allocating jobs and resources to members of specific groups, such as minorities and women.
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; civil rightscivil rights,
rights that a nation's inhabitants enjoy by law. The term is broader than "political rights," which refer only to rights devolving from the franchise and are held usually only by a citizen, and unlike "natural rights," civil rights have a legal as well as a
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; integrationintegration,
in U.S. history, the goal of an organized movement to break down the barriers of discrimination and segregation separating African Americans from the rest of American society.
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.

Bibliography

See C. V. Woodward, The Strange Career of Jim Crow (1966); L. F. Litwack, How Free Is Free? The Long Death of Jim Crow (2009).

‘Jim Crow’ Laws

the common slang name in the US for laws in the Southern states which enforced SEGREGATION of white and black persons in transport, education, marriage, leisure facilities and so on. These laws were common in the Southern US from 1883 to 1954 despite the emancipation of black slaves in 1865. All over the South, ‘whites only’ and ‘blacks only’ signs were a visible reminder of the inferior status of black Americans. The Supreme Court ruled in 1896 (Plessey v. Ferguson) that ‘separate but equal’ facilities for blacks and whites were legal. Until 1954, when the Supreme Court reversed its view (Brown v. Board of Education), separate, but very inferior and unequal, provision for blacks was the order of the day in the South. Originally, ‘Jim Crow’ was a common and pejorative slave name.

Jim Crow laws

among other rulings, prevented interstate travel by Negroes. [Am. Hist.: Van Doren, 485]
References in periodicals archive ?
Cooks, a community activist, told the mixed crowd of teenagers and older people Saturday that a Jim Crow law was one that mandated separate and segregated public facilities for nonwhites.
She traces families over time and shows how the legacy of Jim Crow laws shape the present day.
We learned so much about life in rural Virginia after the Civil War and were appalled at the Jim Crow laws and the state of the justice system then.
However, the group GLD did not agree with the networks move to lift the ban and said in a statement that Robertson should look African-American and gay people in the eyes and hear about the hurtful impact of praising Jim Crow laws and comparing gay people to terrorists.
Jim Crow laws regulated people's behavior, saying who you could marry, where you could live, where you could be buried, where you could eat, who could vote.
Historians for the most part see the explosion of Jim Crow laws at the end of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century that required African Americans to be segregated from whites as a natural progression of racism that followed the Civil War, along with the social upheavals that followed as black chattel slavery was ended by military force.
With vivid illustrations, Lila portrays the racial tension within the Deep South, where Jim Crow laws still reigned.
Jim Crow laws were ordinances passed after 1877 by Southern states in defiance of the 14th Amendment.
Many Dominicans who went to the United States to play professional baseball in the 1950s and 1960s recall being surprised to be described as black, and therefore subject to the same Jim Crow laws Jackie Robinson helped to overcome.
Opponents denounce the legislation as nothing more than a throwback to the era of Jim Crow laws that will promote racial profiling.
After the Civil War, the people of Kentucky rallied to Democratic politics, and the racial violence and Jim Crow laws strongly associated with former Confederate states took root in Kentucky soil.
Her discussion of the 24th Infantry's Third Battalion's arrival in Houston to guard over the construction of a National Guard training camp and the town's reaction to the men who were "unwilling to keep in their place" is a vivid portrayal of the attitudes of African American soldiers who intended to defy the social system structured for them by the Jim Crow laws and of the attitudes of hostile, unwelcoming citizens who did not accept the well-traveled, well-seasoned soldiers.