Webster systematically explores these points of agreement and their roots in earlier sources such as the Joachimite
apocalyptic tradition and the spirituality of German mystics such as Tauler.
And if, from a certain standpoint, the humanist view of history as a succession of unique events militated against any determinism (as Ulrich Muhlach points out), nonetheless, a deeply-rooted theism and generally accepted formulae, such as the succession of empires, for organizing human experience into a providential scheme, could easily be reified into a belief in repetitivity, or at least, in the existence of a pattern--and such procedures were by no means limited to the Catholic world, so Leppin argues, analyzing the Chronicon Carionis, replete with observations on the prospects for a society destined since the beginning (as demonstrated in part by a review of the Joachimite
succession of papacies) to undergo the Lutheran reforms.
The Jewish messianism exacerbated by the expulsion from Spain found fertile ground in Christian millenarianism, partly of Joachimite
origin, which had remained latent largely under Franciscan influence, in a convergence that caused growing disquiet in the orthodoxy of the Counter-Reformation.
Further, the books' theological arguments favor heresies, such as the Joachimite
heresy in Les Meteores and Prelat's theory in Gilles et Jeanne that Gilles can find God only through sin.
John, to which Leo's Bible is opened, had special significance in Joachimite and Amadeite circles.
The open book of maps refers to the entire world that will receive the message of Christ and be united in one fold under one shepherd, the fulfillment of Joachimite prophecies.
John, who in the Joachimite scheme represents the third age, the stage of the Holy Spirit and of the contemplative life.
Madigan has reached his conclusions after very careful comparison of the patristic, scholastic, and Joachimite commentaries on the Gospels and has shown that although Olivi was influenced by them, his commentary on Matthew diverged in ways that contributed later to his condemnation by the papacy.
Chapter 3 deals in more detail with Joachimite apocalyptic thought and its influence on the Franciscan Order, and it is here that Madigan alludes to the way in which Olivi appropriated certain prophecies; in particular, he regarded the Franciscans as a new evangelical order that would suffer certain tribulations.
Nevertheless, he demonstrates that a minority of the most disillusioned evangelicals - mostly artisans and a sprinkling of humanists - took up anabaptism, while a wider spectrum of tradesmen were drawn to Joachimite
Finally, three suggestive studies explore the impact of Joachimite
ideas on iconography: Malcolm Bull looks at the program of the Sistine Chapel ceiling and Joachimite
typology; and Josephine Jungic at two Transfigurations, Raphael's and Sebastiano del Piombo's, which, in the early sixteenth century at least, were both in San Pietro in Montorio.