Long ignored abroad, it was not yet over before it was subjected to fundamental attacks at home, initially by religious apologists such as Johann Georg Hamann Johann Kaspar Lavater
, and Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi, and (in an official capacity) by the Prussian state, then by the German Romantic movement for its supposed dogmatic rationalism and complacent optimism, by German nationalism from the early nineteenth to the mid-twentieth century for its alleged Francophile tendencies, and more recently (together with the Enlightenment as a whole) by Max Horkheimer and Theodor Adorno's diatribe, Dialektik der Aufklarung, which presented the worst abuses of the modern era, including fascism, militarism, commercialism, and the Holocaust, as necessary consequences of that movement.
Johann Kaspar Lavater
, el "Mesias de la fisonomia" del siglo XVIII, creia que la naturaleza interior del hombre se proyecta e ilumina el exterior de forma mas potente en los momentos cruciales, como al final de la vida.
The science of physiognomy, especially the writings of Johann Kaspar Lavater
was crucial, Wegenstein notes, in establishing this connection in later-day (18th-century) Europe as well.
2) Johann Kaspar Lavater (1741-1801), promoter of physiognomy, the study of the character based on facial features, considered silhouettes as poor but accurate representations, reduced to their simplest expression, albeit objectively true.
Johann Kaspar Lavater, Essays on Physiognomy; For the Promotion of the Knowledge and the Love of Mankind.
se cuenta la historia del joven Giotto de Winthertur, quien es "descubierto" por Johann Kaspar Lavater
, un pastor protestante del siglo XVIII, quien integra al pintor autodidacta en el estudio de la pintura "en serio", mientras el se dedica a sus propios estudios.
In the system of Johann Kaspar Lavater
, Austen's contemporary who was a well known writer regarding physiognomy, blue eyes frequently indicated "persons of phlegmatic character," but could also point to a person with retiring feminine qualities--like Harriet Smith (Lavater 14).
A voice-over, this time with a pronounced Germanic accent, discusses the relationships and rivalries between Swiss theologian and poet Johann Kaspar Lavater
, who is now remembered only for his disreputed book on physiognomy, which brought him transient popularity in the eighteenth century when these theories took hold.
Through his correspondence, Kirn traces Ewald's movement from neologism to Wurttemburg-style Pietism mediated in part through his contact with Johann Kaspar Lavater
, Philipp Matthaus Hahn, and J.
En este mismo sentido, en contra de la deificacion del libro, van las siguientes palabras de Kant consignadas en el borrador de una carta a Johann Kaspar Lavater
del 28 de abril de 1775:
Through his correspondence, Kirn traces Ewald's movement from neologism to Wurttemberg-style Pietism mediated in part through his contact with Johann Kaspar Lavater
, Philipp Matthaus Hahn, and J.
293-313; Richard Grey, "Die Geburt des Genies aus dem Geiste der Aufklarung: Semiotik und Aufklarungsideologie in der Physiognomik Johann Kaspar Lavaters
," Poetica 23 (1991), pp.