Johann Kaspar Lavater


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Lavater, Johann Kaspar

 

Born Nov. 15, 1741, in Zürich; died there Jan. 2, 1801. Swiss writer. Wrote in German.

Lavater studied theology and was a minister in Zürich. He is the author of the collection of verses Swiss Songs (1767) and of many works of a religious nature, including the novel Pontius Pilate, or The Small Bible (1782–85), the drama Abraham and Isaac (1776), and the collections of verse Two Hundred Christian Songs (1780) and Poetry (1781). His work, only superficially related to Sturm und Drang, was full of superstitions and irrational tendencies. In the philosophical work Physiognomical Fragments for Encouraging Knowledge and Love of Man (1775–78), Lavater tried to establish a connection between the spiritual nature of man and the structure and outlines of his skull and face.

WORKS

Sämtliche Werke, vols. 1–6. Augsburg-Lindau, 1834–38.
Ausgewählte Schriften, vols. 1–8. Zürich, 1841–44.
In Russian translation:
Nastavleniia (nravouchitel’nye) slugam. St. Petersburg, 1799.

REFERENCES

Muncker, F. J. K. Lavater. Stuttgart, 1883.
Funck, H. J. W. Goethe und Lavater. Weimar, 1907.
Vömel, A. J. K. Lavater, 1741–1801: Ein Lebensbild, 2nd ed. Neukirchen, 1927.
References in periodicals archive ?
The science of physiognomy, especially the writings of Johann Kaspar Lavater was crucial, Wegenstein notes, in establishing this connection in later-day (18th-century) Europe as well.
Through his correspondence, Kirn traces Ewald's movement from neologism to Wurttemburg-style Pietism mediated in part through his contact with Johann Kaspar Lavater, Philipp Matthaus Hahn, and J.
A voice-over, this time with a pronounced Germanic accent, discusses the relationships and rivalries between Swiss theologian and poet Johann Kaspar Lavater, who is now remembered only for his disreputed book on physiognomy, which brought him transient popularity in the eighteenth century when these theories took hold.
In the system of Johann Kaspar Lavater, Austen's contemporary who was a well known writer regarding physiognomy, blue eyes frequently indicated "persons of phlegmatic character," but could also point to a person with retiring feminine qualities--like Harriet Smith (Lavater 14).
2) Johann Kaspar Lavater (1741-1801), promoter of physiognomy, the study of the character based on facial features, considered silhouettes as poor but accurate representations, reduced to their simplest expression, albeit objectively true.
The most famous of the physiognomists during the period was Johann Kaspar Lavater (1741-1801), who published his Physiognomische Fragmente in five volumes between 1775 and 1778.
Through his correspondence, Kirn traces Ewald's movement from neologism to Wurttemberg-style Pietism mediated in part through his contact with Johann Kaspar Lavater, Philipp Matthaus Hahn, and J.
293-313; Richard Grey, "Die Geburt des Genies aus dem Geiste der Aufklarung: Semiotik und Aufklarungsideologie in der Physiognomik Johann Kaspar Lavaters," Poetica 23 (1991), pp.