Bartram, John

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Bartram, John

(bär`trəm), 1699–1777, pioneer American botanist, b. near Darby, Pa. He had no formal schooling but possessed a keen mind and a great interest in plants. In 1728 he purchased land along the banks of the Schuylkill River near Philadelphia and planted there the first botanical garden in the United States; it still exists as a part of the Philadelphia park system. He made journeys in the Alleghenies and the Catskills and in the Carolinas and Florida in search of new plants. Among his correspondents were nearly all the great European botanists of the day. By exchanging specimens with them, Bartram introduced many American plants into Europe and established some European species in the New World. To his home and gardens came the famous Americans of his day and many distinguished European travelers. His Observations (1751) records a trip to Lake Ontario, and the journal of his Florida trip (1765–66) was published in William Stork's Description of East Florida (3d ed. 1769). His name is commemorated in a genus of mosses, Bartramia.

Bibliography

See E. Earnest, John and William Bartram (1940); A. Sutton, Exploring with the Bartrams (1963); A. Wulf, The Brother Gardeners (2009).

Bartram, John

(1699–1777) botanist; born near Darby, Pa. He developed an early interest in botany while growing up on his father's farm. After completing country school at age 12, he taught himself classical languages, medicine, and surgery from books. In 1728 he purchased land at Kingsessing, near Philadelphia, which he developed into the first botanical garden in the American colonies and where he conducted the first hybridization experiments in America. Around 1733 he began corresponding with English naturalist Peter Collinson, with whom he exchanged seeds and plant specimens. This relationship led to his correspondence with Swedish biologist and taxonomist Carl Linnaeus, who called Bartram "the greatest natural botanist in the world." By 1750, Bartram was acclaimed throughout Europe. He made frequent collecting expeditions from Canada to Florida, some with his botanist son William Bartram until the early 1770s. In 1743, he became a member of Benjamin Franklin's American Philosophical Society, and in 1765 was appointed botanist to King George III. A naturalist as well as a botanist, Bartram described and collected zoological specimens, proposed geological surveys of North American mineral sites, and argued that fossils be investigated scientifically, rather than exploited as curiosities. A Quaker, he demonstrated his opposition to slavery by freeing his slaves; his outspoken religious opinions caused him to be disowned by his coreligionists in the Society of Friends. Bartramia, a genus of mosses, was named in his honor.
References in periodicals archive ?
He led efforts by his local office1 to donate desks and various school supplies to John Bartram High School in Philadelphia and has stated that charity work is near and dear to his heart.
John Bartram (1699-1777) Botanist to King George III, travelled to Florida on a one-year botanical trip to Georgia and Florida that included a survey at Shell Bluff, Georgia, taking his son William Bartram (1739-1824) to collect seeds and specimens for friends and fellow gardeners.
The Brother Gardeners, Botany, Empire, and the birth of an Obsession" tells us first of a cloth merchant based in London, Peter Collinson, and his involvement with John Bartram, a plant explorer and nurseryman of Philadelphia.
Utilizing a rich collection of archival sources such as scientific journals, taxonomies, travel narratives, memoirs, letters, and surveys, Judd crafts an elegant narrative that explores how various naturalists--from John Bartram to John James Audubon--thought about, experienced, and defined their role in relation to the natural world, and through their writings "fixed the idea of nature in the American mind and placed it at the core of our national consciousness" (p.
Richard Holmes's (2008) The Age of Wonder, a study of science in the development of British romanticism, has Joseph Banks as one of its main subjects, and Andrea Wulf's (2008) The Brother Gardeners deals not only with Banks but with such American figures as John Bartram and Benjamin Franklin.
Still on the subject of maritime adventure, John Bartram, of History Hunters Worldwide, contacted us about an article we published on December 5 that listed significant events of 1694, the year the Bank of England came into existence.
Here my path crosses that of John Bartram who was on a very similar quest with his son William in 1765.
Van Horne, America's Curious Botanist: A Tercentennial Reappraisal Of John Bartram 1699-1777 is an anthology of essays by learned authors, most of which were first presented to Philadelphia's Bartram tercentenary conference in May 1999, concerning the contributions John Bartram and his contemporaries made to 18th-century botany and natural science.
American natural historians as important as John Bartram, St.
Phlox are native to North America, and this variety from open-pollinated seed is thought to be a descendent of the phlox that was sent to England by John Bartram from Pennsylvania's Brandywine Valley back in the 1730s.
A single shot rang out in the third-floor corridor of John Bartram High School, Philadelphia.
Our Children's Garden program at Bartram's Garden provides students the opportunity to plant, harvest, and enjoy fruits and vegetables," said Louise Turan, Executive Director of the John Bartram Association.