John Donne


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Donne, John

(dŭn, dŏn), 1572–1631, English poet and divine. He is considered the greatest of the metaphysical poetsmetaphysical poets,
name given to a group of English lyric poets of the 17th cent. The term was first used by Samuel Johnson (1744). The hallmark of their poetry is the metaphysical conceit (a figure of speech that employs unusual and paradoxical images), a reliance on
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.

Life and Works

Reared a Roman Catholic, Donne was educated at Oxford, Cambridge, and Lincoln's Inn. He traveled on the Continent and in 1596–97 accompanied the earl of Essex on his expeditions to Cádiz and the Azores. On his return he became secretary to Sir Thomas Egerton (later Baron Ellesmere), lord keeper of the great seal, and achieved a reputation as a poet and public personage. His writing of this period, including some of his Songs and Sonnets (others were written as late as 1617) and Problems and Paradoxes, consist of cynical, realistic, often sensual lyrics, essays, and verse satires.

Donne's court career was ruined by the discovery of his marriage in 1601 to Anne More, niece to Sir Thomas Egerton's second wife, and he was imprisoned for a short time. After 1601 his poetry became more serious. The two Anniversaries—An Anatomy of the World (1611) and Of the Progress of the Soul (1612)—reveal that his faith in the medieval order of things had been disrupted by the growing political, scientific, and philosophic doubt of the times. He wrote prose on religious and moral subjects; a polemic against the Jesuits; Biathanatos (not published until 1644), a qualified apology for suicide; and the Pseudo-Martyr (1610), an argument for Anglicanism.

After a long period of financial uncertainty and desperation, during which he was twice a member of Parliament (1601, 1614), Donne yielded to the wishes of King James I and took orders in 1615. Two years later his wife died. The tone of his poetry, especially the Holy Sonnets, deepened after her death. After his ordination, Donne wrote more religious works, such as his Devotions (1624) and sermons. Several of his sermons were published during his lifetime. Donne was one of the most eloquent preachers of his day. He was made reader in divinity at Lincoln's Inn, a royal chaplain, and in 1621, dean of St. Paul's, a position he held until his death.

Poetry

All of Donne's verse—his love sonnets and his religious and philosophical poems—is distinguished by a remarkable blend of passion and reason. His love poetry treats the breadth of the experience of loving, emphasizing, in such poems as "The Ecstasie," the root of spiritual love in physical love. The devotional poems and sermons reveal a profound concern with death, decay, damnation, and the possibility of the soul's transcendent union with God.

Original, witty, erudite, and often obscure, Donne's style is characterized by a brilliant use of paradox, hyperbole, and imagery. His most famous poems include "A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning," "Go and catch a falling star," "Hymn to God the Father," and the sonnet to death ("Death be not proud"). Neglected for 200 years, Donne was rediscovered by 20th-century critics. His work has had a profound influence on a number of poets Including W. B. Yeats, T. S. Eliot, and W. H. Auden.

Bibliography

See biographies by R. C. Bald (1970, repr. 1986) and J. Stubbs (2007); studies by R. E. Hughes (1968), R. S. Jackson (1970), W. Sanders (1971), M. Roston (1974), T. Spencer, ed. (2d ed. 1986), C. J. Summers and T.-L. Pebworth, ed. (1986), F. J. Wamke (1987), D. A. Larson (1989), J. Carey (1981, rev. ed. 1991), A. L. Clements, ed. (2d ed., 1991), E. W. Tayler (1991), A. F. Marotti (1986 and as ed. 1994), A. J. Smith (2 vol., 1975, repr. 1996), P. M. Oliver (1997), J. Johnson (1999), A Mousley, ed. (1999), D. L. Edwards (2002), B. Saunders (2006), D. R. Dickson, ed. (2007), and R. Targoff (2009); centenary volumes edited by P. A. Fiore (1972) and A. J. Smith (1972).

Donne, John

 

Born Jan. 22 or Feb. 12, 1572; died Mar. 31, 1631. English poet.

Donne secretly married the niece of the lord chancellor, for which he was imprisoned in the Tower of London for a time. Later he entered the church and became dean of St. Paul’s Cathedral in London in 1621. The founder of the metaphysical school of poets, Donne was the author of the religious and mystical poems Of the Progres of the Soule (1601) and An Anatomic of the World (1611). In Soviet literary criticism, Donne’s work is viewed as a deviation from the life-affirming humanism of the Renaissance and as the epitome of the baroque style.

WORKS

Complete Poetry and Selected Prose. New York, 1952.
In Russian translation:
In O. Rumer, Izbr. perevody. Moscow, 1959.

REFERENCES

Istoriia angliiskoi literatury, vol. 1, issue 2. Moscow-Leningrad, 1945. Pages 165-67.
Unger, L. Donne’s Poetry and Modern Criticism. New York, 1962.
Bald, R. C. John Donne: A Life. [London] 1970. (Bibliography on pp. XIII-XIV.)
References in periodicals archive ?
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Robert Whalen's study of John Donne and George Herbert is a welcome addition to the ongoing study of the identification of Anglican theology and liturgy in the first century after the English Reformation.
In an extreme form of such a dualism, such as that held by poet John Donne, "The World is but a Carkas," and we should "Forget this world, and scarse thinke of it so, / As of old cloathes, cast off a yeare agoe.
No man is an island, entire of itself," English poet John Donne declared.
99) PROF Michael Cole should be writing a biography of poet John Donne, but he spends his time seducing students, taking drugs and neglecting his family.
As John Donne elegantly once stated: "No man is an island, entire of itself: every man is a piece of the continent, a part of the main" (John Donne -- Meditation 17).
The quartet will play works of Samuel Barber and Benjamin Britten while Pinsky reads poems by John Donne, William Carlos Williams, Emily Dickinson and Yeats, among others.
During the last few weeks, I found myself turning to the two seventeenth-century poets who were the icons of my youth: John Donne and Andrew Marvell.
Sam, who has long been interested in 17th-century writing, has compiled what cathedral staff describe as "a lovely and thought-provoking tapestry of words" based on poets John Donne and George Herbert, along with the Book of Common Prayer.