John Fiske


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Fiske, John

 

Born Mar. 30, 1842, in Hartford, Conn.; died July 4, 1901, in Gloucester, Mass. American historian and philosopher.

Fiske was significantly influenced by H. Spencer. In his historical studies he made use of a comparative method to examine political institutions, ignoring the socioeconomic conditions that gave rise to them and attributing the similar traits of various political systems over the course of history to racial community. Fiske preached the racial superiority of the Aryans and the inevitability of the spread of Anglo-Saxon political institutions throughout the world. He traced the development of the US bourgeois political system to the growth of Teutonic ideas and to the growth of the federal and local governments. In his works devoted to the colonial period in American history and to the American Revolution, Fiske attributed the cause of the war to the political shortsightedness of the British government.

WORKS

The Outlines of Cosmic Philosophy, vols. 1–4. Boston, 1903.
The Beginnings of New England. Boston–New York, 1930.
American Political Ideas Viewed From the Standpoint of Universal History. Boston–New York [1917].
The War of Independence. Boston, 1917.
The Critical Period of American History, 1783–1789. Boston–New York, 1898.

REFERENCE

Dement’ev, I. P. “Istoricheskie vzgliady Dzh. Fiske.” In the collection Istoriia i istoriki, 1971. Moscow, 1973.

I. P. DEMENT’EV

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The 1970s to the mid-1990s was a rich period for 'post-Barthian' critical approaches to advertising, as authors like Judith Williamson, John Fiske, Jib Fowles, Robert Goldman and Stephen Papson, and Sut Jhally, working within new cultural studies frameworks, developed historical and analytical approaches to advertising as more than mere lubricant in the wheels of capitalism.
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For example, Harris took inspiration from a popular author, John Fiske, who used the theory of evolution to advance the view that schools could promote a good society.
Survivors include three children: James, Jean (Rashkin), and Don; two brothers: John Fiske and Sam Fiske; two sisters Elizabeth Pittman and Gail Pool; seven grandchildren, seven great-grandchildren and many nieces and nephews.
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The first chapter of the volume, "For Cultural Interpretation: A Study of the Culture of Homelessness" by John Fiske, was originally published in 1991.
In the debate over whether television viewers are passive consumers or active participants in creating cultural meaning from the "texts" available, Kammen aligns himself with those who stress passivity, and thoughtfully criticizes John Fiske and others who find a greater degree of agency.
Smith maps the new American cultural sociology via an interesting comparison of the aims and methods of this approach with those of European cultural theory (represented by thinkers such as Levi-Strauss, Foucault, Lacan, Derrida, Douglas and Bourdieu) and British cultural studies (linked to authors such as Stuart Hall, John Fiske and Lawrence Grossberg).