Macdonald, Sir John Alexander

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Macdonald, Sir John Alexander,

1815–91, Canadian statesman, first prime minister of the Dominion of Canada, b. Glasgow. His parents settled in 1820 in Kingston, Ont. Macdonald first practiced law. With his election (1844) as a Conservative to the legislative assembly, he entered upon his long political career. A forceful man and a vigorous fighter, he quickly rose to leadership in the government of Upper Canada (Ontario). He and Georges Étienne CartierCartier, Sir Georges Étienne
, 1814–73, Canadian statesman, b. Quebec prov. He was called to the bar of Lower Canada (Quebec) in 1835. He took part in the rebellion of 1837 inspired by Louis Joseph Papineau and was forced to flee to the United States, but he
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 of Lower Canada headed the Liberal-Conservatives (a coalition largely of Macdonald's creating), and he became prime minister in 1857. This government fell in 1858, but he continued as a cabinet minister until 1862. He briefly returned (1864) as prime minister before he was joined by George BrownBrown, George,
1818–80, Canadian statesman and journalist, b. Scotland. In 1837 he emigrated to the United States, but after five years in New York City, he settled in Toronto, Ont.
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 and others in the "great coalition" ministry (1864–67), which paved the way for the union of the British North American provinces. Macdonald was the most potent figure in bringing about confederation (1867) of the provinces as the Dominion of Canada. His policy as prime minister was dominated by the vigorous attempt to build Canada. Believing that the dominion's prosperity required strong bonds with England, he worked throughout his career to that end. The Northwest Territories were taken over from the Hudson's Bay Company in 1869; to facilitate their development, Macdonald's government decided to construct the Canadian Pacific Railway. His personal popularity was not enough when the Pacific scandalPacific scandal,
1873, a major event in Canadian political history. Charges were made in Parliament that the Conservative administration of Sir John A. Macdonald had accepted campaign funds from Sir Hugh Allan in return for a promise to award Allan's syndicate the contract to
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, which involved the railroad, broke (1873), and the government resigned. Changing industrial conditions made Macdonald the advocate of a protectionist policy (known as the National Policy), and he was returned as prime minister in 1878 and served until his death. The transcontinental railroad was completed (1885), and other public works were accomplished. Macdonald was knighted in 1867.


See his correspondence, ed. by J. Pope (1921); biographies by his nephew, J. P. Macpherson (2 vol., 1891) and D. G. Creighton (1952 and 1956); study by D. Swainson (1971).

References in periodicals archive ?
John Macdonald, 38, pleaded guilty to sexually assaulting a very young boy and causing or inciting him to engage in sexual activity.
The ceremony included an honour song by Rocky Morin, of the Enoch Cree Nation, and a blessing from veteran and Metis Elder John Macdonald.
MC John MacDonald will introduce Anderson as "Champion of the World" in Milton Keynes when he " appears for the first round of the Unibet Masters.
Distillery Manager John MacDonald hand-selects each cask and only releases whiskies that have reached their exact point of 'optimum maturation.
Early Life: Born David John MacDonald on April 18, 1971, in Bathgate, West Lothian, Scotland, the youngest of a vicar's three children.
Clarke, of Ffordd Pennant in Mostyn, had admitted at an earlier magistrates' court that he assaulted John MacDonald on March 9, occasioning him actual bodily harm.
John MacDonald was hired by State Highway District 2 Credit Union in 1978.
On behalf of the Honourable Peter Kent, Canada s Environment Minister and Minister responsible for Parks Canada, the Honourable Gail Shea, Minister of National Revenue, today designated John MacDonald of Glenaladale as a national historic person for his important contribution to early Canadian settlement.
RANGERS: Former Rangers striker John MacDonald is baffled by the whole situation and claims the stricken Ibrox club have been subject to a "witch hunt".
Tomaszek looks at items brought in by John MacDonald of Thompson, Conn.
Det Chief Insp John Macdonald said: "The people chasing him were black but I reinforce the family's position that there is nothing to suggest it was racial.
7,837,663 B2; John MacDonald, RameshBabu Boga, Jaeho Kim, Bao Trong Do and Irene Kuznetsov, assignors to Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.