Neumann, John (Nepomucene)(1811–60) Catholic prelate, saint; born in Bohemia. After seminary studies he emigrated, virtually penniless, to New York City, where he was accepted for ordination in 1836. Following pastoral work in the Buffalo, N.Y., region, he took vows as a Redemptorist (1842), served in Baltimore and Pittsburgh, and was a Redemptorist vice-provincial (1847–51). As bishop of Philadelphia (from 1852), he built many schools and churches, wrote doctrinal books in German for children, and was well known as a preacher, retreat master, and champion of the poor. Admired for sanctity in his lifetime, he was beatified in 1963 and canonized in 1977.