John Wyclif


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Wyclif, Wycliffe, Wickliffe, or Wiclif, John

(all: wĭk`lĭf), c.1328–1384, English religious reformer. A Yorkshireman by birth, Wyclif studied and taught theology and philosophy at Oxford. He was later made rector at Fillingham (1361), at Ludgershall (1368), and at Lutterworth (1374). His belief in the doctrine that Christ is humanity's only overlord and that power should depend on a state of grace made him a champion of the people against the abuses of the church. He early associated himself with the anticlerical party in the nation and in 1374 was sent to Bruges to represent the English crown in negotiations over payment of tribute to the Holy See. From 1377 he made many vigorous attacks in both Latin and English on orthodox church doctrines, especially that of transubstantiation. Through his own preaching in the vernacular at Oxford and London and the itinerant teaching of his "poor priests," he spread the doctrine that the Scriptures are the supreme authority and that the good offices of the church are not requisite to grace. He was condemned as a heretic in 1380 and again in 1382, and his followers were persecuted, but he was not disturbed in his retirement at Lutterworth, where he died in 1384. The Wyclif Bible is a great landmark in the history of the BibleBible
[Gr.,=the books], term used since the 4th cent. to denote the Christian Scriptures and later, by extension, those of various religious traditions. This article discusses the nature of religious scripture generally and the Christian Scriptures specifically, as well as the
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 and of the English language. This first and literal translation of the Latin Vulgate Bible into English was mainly the work of his followers, notably Nicholas Hereford; the smoother revision of c.1395 was directed by Wyclif's follower John Purvey. In England the Lollards (see LollardryLollardry
or Lollardy,
medieval English movement for ecclesiastical reform, led by John Wyclif, whose "poor priests" spread his ideas about the countryside in the late 14th cent.
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) formed the link between Wyclif and the Protestant Reformation; on the Continent he was a chief forerunner of the Reformation, through his influence on Jan HussHuss, John
, Czech Jan Hus , 1369?–1415, Czech religious reformer. Early Life

Of peasant origin, he was born in Husinec, Bohemia (from which his name is derived). He studied theology at the Univ. of Prague, was ordained a priest c.
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, the Bohemian reformer, and through Huss on Martin Luther and the Moravians.

Bibliography

See editions of most of his works by the Wyclif Society; biography by H. B. Workman (1926); G. M. Trevelyan, England in the Age of Wycliffe (new ed. 1972); K. B. McFarlane, John Wycliffe and the Beginnings of English Nonconformity (1953); J. Stacey, John Wyclif and Reform (1964); J. C. Carrick, Wycliffe and the Lollards (1977); L. B. Hall, The Perilous Vision of John Wyclif (1983).

References in periodicals archive ?
Lahey's Philosophy and Politics in the Thought of John Wyclif (New York: Cambridge University, 2003).
Levy's work on the scriptural logic and Eucharistic theology of John Wyclif extends somewhat the range, even as it reflects the contours of Hagen's own interests.
The English theologian John Wyclif first ran afoul of ecclesiastical authorities in 1377, when Pope Gregory XI condemned nineteen propositions drawn from his De civili dominio, a massive work completed the previous year.
The three main protagonists of this revival were Richard FitzRalph, Thomas Bradwardine (in his massive De Causa Dei) and John Wyclif.
Drawing largely on the work of other historians, Hylson-Smith argues that the Norman Conquest and the death of John Wyclif frame a period of growing unification and self-consciousness for both the nation and the church, and his study sets out to examine "the most important political ups and downs" of these years and "relate[s] these changes to the equally variable fortunes of the church" (xii).
It used to be de rigeur among literary and religious historians to regard this group with the horror media elites reserve for Bible-belt fundamentalists in contemporary America and for many of the same reasons: "Nothing feeds the Church more nutritiously than the preaching of God's word," said John Wyclif in 1380 (Speculum secularium dominorum).
He noticed several books were damaged, and then his roommate found a slug in the bag: a bullet had gone through a book about 14th-century philosopher John Wyclif.
Pitts from 2004-2010, explores the various ways that early dissenting historians, including the Baptist Thomas Crosby, appropriated John Wyclif.
The volume is arranged in three main parts: John Wyclif, English Wycliffite Writings, and Heresy Trials.
Church reformer John Wyclif was rector at nearby Lutterworth and the meeting led to a local uprising.
A companion to John Wyclif, a late medieval theologian.