John of Salisbury


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Salisbury, John of:

see John of SalisburyJohn of Salisbury
, c.1110–1180, English scholastic philosopher, b. Salisbury. He studied in France at Paris and Chartres under Abelard and other famous teachers. He was secretary to Theobald, archbishop of Canterbury, and friend and secretary to St.
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.

John of Salisbury

(sôlz`bərē), c.1110–1180, English scholastic philosopher, b. Salisbury. He studied in France at Paris and Chartres under Abelard and other famous teachers. He was secretary to Theobald, archbishop of Canterbury, and friend and secretary to St. Thomas à Becket, of whom he wrote a biography. From 1176 to 1180, John was bishop of Chartres. His two main works are the Polycraticus, a treatise on the principles of government, and the Metalogicus, which presents a picture of the intellectual life and the scholastic controversies of the age. He was well acquainted with the Latin classics, and the influence of Platonism on his writing is considerable. He was one of the originators of moderate realismrealism,
in philosophy. 1 In medieval philosophy realism represented a position taken on the problem of universals. There were two schools of realism. Extreme realism, represented by William of Champeaux, held that universals exist independently of both the human mind and
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 as a solution to the controversy with nominalism.

Bibliography

See two selections from the Polycraticus—The Statesman's Book of John of Salisbury (tr. by J. Dickinson, 1927, repr. 1963) and Frivolities of Courtiers (tr. by J. P. Pike, 1938, repr. 1972); M. J. Wilks, ed., The World of John of Salisbury (1985).

John of Salisbury

 

Born 1115 or 1120 in Salisbury; died Oct. 25, 1180, in Chartres (?). English theologian.

John of Salisbury was secretary to Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas à Becket, and he supported him in his struggle against King Henry II of England. He dedicated his principal work, Policraticus, to Becket; in it he set forth his political and ethical views (particularly his substantiation of the idea that secular power must be subordinate to spiritual power). His book also contained information on the history of philosophical doctrines. He also wrote a treatise entitled Metalogicon (an introduction to Aristotelian logic) and Historia pontificalis, which dealt with the years 1143 through 1152.

John of Salisbury

died 1180, English ecclesiastic and scholar; bishop of Chartres (1176--80). He supported Thomas ? Becket against Henry II
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John of Salisbury repeatedly describes the prince as an executioner (carnifex).
In chapter 9, "Clerics, Canon Law, Crusaders and Culture," Huffman discusses examples of expatriate English scholars such as Gerard Pucelle, a contemporary of John of Salisbury, who ventured to Cologne in 1180 and helped develop a school of canon law in the city, reminding us that cities other than Paris were significant centres of learning in northern Europe during the twelfth century.
Other authors go back as far as John of Salisbury (twelfth century), Hobbes (early seventeenth) and Locke (late seventeenth), but concentrate on three.
But the reader should be aware that it contains seven articles on John of Salisbury, including important information on his doctrine of tyrannicide.
These are, however, placed within the context of European approaches to the three tenets of the title, also thus involving discussion of earlier writings by John of Salisbury, Aegidius Colonna, and Boccaccio.
That treatise, the Liber de Panibus by Peter of Celle, was actually discussed by John of Salisbury in a letter that seems securely dated to ca.
If he were correct, then we would have to conclude that John of Salisbury, for example, had actually taught in Exeter, something for which there is, I think, absolutely no evidence.
Rollison's analysis of this struggle is wide-ranging: he discusses individual case studies of conflicts between villagers and lords, and analyzes the writings of notable political theorists from John of Salisbury to Thomas Hobbes.
Bruce Brasington traces a text, spuriously attributed to the fifth-century Pope Innocent I, from its first appearance in the eighth-century Collectio Hibernensis to its use by John of Salisbury late in the twelfth century.
To justify preferring the truth of a statement to the authority of the ancient speaker, Isaiah cites a story "from the greatest of the philosophers among the nations, whom we can recognize to have been John of Salisbury, crediting Bernard of Chartres: 'The ancients were wiser and knew more than we, but we justifiably contradict their words in many places.
Given his reputation as the most learned and literate man of his time, it is remarkable that John of Salisbury (ca.
Macrobius already regarded the Dido episode in Virgil's Aeneid as fictional, rather than historical, and he was followed in this by John of Salisbury in the twelfth century.