Johnston Atoll

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Johnston Atoll,

atoll, 2.8 sq mi (7.25 sq km), central Pacific, c.700 nautical mi (1,300 km) SW of Honolulu, central Pacific, an uninc. territory of the United States. It consists of four islands and reefs. The largest island, Johnston Island, c.3,000 ft (910 m) long and c.600 ft (180 m) wide, has been significantly expanded with dredged fill. The atoll is the site of a wildlife refuge.

Johnston Atoll was discovered by Americans in 1796, or the British in 1807, and was claimed by both the United States and the Kingdom of Hawaii in 1858; it was not, however, included in the state of Hawaii. U.S. companies exploited the island for guano until the 1880s. A bird sanctuary since the 1920s, the strategic island was under U.S. Navy control from 1934 and Air Force control after 1948, now jointly with the Dept. of the Interior.

In the 1950s and 60s the United States conducted a series of nuclear tests there, causing some radioactive contamination of the atoll; the area was also a chemical and biological weapons storage and incineration site. Contaminated soil is now stored in a landfill. Since 2009 it has been part of the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National MonumentPacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument,
c.490,000 sq mi (1,260,000 sq km), central Pacific Ocean; est. 2009. The monument comprises the waters and reefs surrounding seven islands and atolls, and in most cases the island lands are managed as wildlife refuges as well.
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References in periodicals archive ?
The Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System will be cut down and run through the metal parts furnace," Isaacs said.
The Deseret, Anniston, Umatilla, and Pine Bluff facilities use incineration to destroy chemical agents, as did Johnston Atoll.
CMA personnel and contractors previously destroyed VX nerve agent munitions at five other disposal sites: Umatilla Chemical Depot, Oregon; Newport Chemical Depot, Indiana; Pine Bluff Chemical Activity, Arkansas; Deseret Chemical Depot, Utah; and Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System, about 800 miles southwest of Hawaii.
Operations at Johnston Atoll included safely destroying over 400,000 weapons and 2,200 tons of various chemical warfare agents.
In addition to the Pine Bluff project, the company has destroyed all chemical weapons at the Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System in the central Pacific and is in the process of closing it down.
Tripler's service region includes Hawaii, Japan, Johnston Atoll, Guam, Eniwetok, Kwajalein, a number of Pacific island nations along with American Samoa.
The announcement detailed the distribution of stockpiles at eight sites in the continental United States and a ninth site on Johnston Atoll, 800 miles southwest of Hawaii.
Army depot on Johnston Atoll, about 800 miles southwest of Hawaii, where more than 400,000 weapons and 2,200 tons of chemical agent were destroyed.
Washington Group is in the process of closing the Johnston Atoll demilitarization facility located 800 miles southwest of Hawaii where it completed its mission of destroying 412,000 chemical weapons.
Army Chemical Activity Pacific (USACAP) Johnston Atoll was finished.