José María de Toreno
Toreno, José María de
Born Nov. 26, 1786, in Oviedo; died Sept. 16, 1843, in Paris. Spanish count; political figure and historian.
Toreno, who was a moderate liberal, took part in the Spanish revolutions of 1808–14, 1820–23, and 1834–43. In 1835 he served briefly as prime minister. He spent the years 1814–19, 1822–32, and 1840–43 abroad. In his History of the Uprising, War, and Revolution in Spain From 1808 to 1814 (vols. 1–5, 1835–37), Toreno depicted the Spanish people’s struggle against the French invaders.