José Gervasio Artigas

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Artigas, José Gervasio

 

Born June 19, 1764, in Montevideo; died Sept. 23, 1850, near Asunción, Paraguay. Uruguayan military and political leader.

Artigas began his military service in the Spanish colonial armies. He took an active part in the struggle of the population of Montevideo against a British invasion in 1806–07. In 1811 he headed a popular uprising of Banda Oriental (“eastern shore,” modern Uruguay) against the Spanish colonizers, and in May of the same year he won a victory over them at Las Piedras. In May 1813, Artigas sent to the General Constitutional Assembly of the La Plata provinces, meeting in Buenos Aires, a delegation from Banda Oriental with a project for the federative structure of the La Plata provinces. Refusal to accept this fully accredited delegation led to Artigas’ break with the eovernment at Buenos Aires. At the beginning of 1815, Artigas expelled troops of the Buenos Aires government who had impinged on the territory of Banda Oriental. From 1816 to 1820 he directed the struggle against an invading army from Brazil. At the beginning of 1820, Artigas’ army suffered a defeat by a Portuguese-Brazilian army. Military clashes with the governor of the Argentine province of Entre Rios also ended in defeat for Artigas, and in 1820 he was forced to cross the border into Paraguay. Here he was interned and remained until his death. The Uruguayan people revere Artigas as a national hero.

REFERENCE

Pintos, F. R. Khose Artigas. Moscow, 1964. (Translated from Spanish.)
References in periodicals archive ?
Set in 1884, it recounts the drama that unfolds when famous Uruguayan artist Juan Manuel Blanes is commissioned to paint a portrait of fugitive leader Jose Artigas.
In it, Chavez stressed two points: 1) Unity in diversity --cultural, linguistic, ethnic, religious, ideological --which is seen within CELAC and is a tribute that, two centuries after the liberating actions that would bring them independence from Spain and Portugal, the American nations pay to Simon Bolivar, Jose Artigas, Jose de San Martin, Antonio Jose de Sucre, Bernardo O'Higgins, Jose Marti, and others; 2) frequent references to Bolivar, his historical point of reference.
LAST NOVEMBER, the Jose Artigas Youth Orchestra of Uruguay gave a concert in the Hall of the Americas of the OAS.
The Jose Artigas Symphony Orchestra is the result of an effort that began in 1996.
Rout (1976:208) only mentions a single Afro-Paraguayan community, Laurelty "which was started in 1820 by fifty Black and mulatto followers of the vanquished Uruguayan patriot, Jose Artigas.
Jose Artigas (1764-1850), the greatest hero of Uruguayan independence, never signed any document with his baptismal name (Gervasio).
The book covered several caudillos, including Francisco Ramirez, Juan Facundo Quiroga, and Angel Vicente Penaloza, as well as the Uruguayan liberator, Jose Artigas.
Across the river in Montevideo, during the Patria Vieja period (1810-16), Jose Artigas used a version of the Argentine flag with a red diagonal stripe across it to symbolize Uruguayan independence from Argentina, but by 1828, when the eastern province obtained definitive independence, it opted for blue and white stripes with a canton containing a golden sun, much like that of the Argentine flag.
Shumway bases his study on the period between 1808 and 1880, examining the social heritage left by Mariano Moreno, as well as by populists Jose Artigas and Bartolome Hidalgo, creator of the gaucho literature.