José Julián Martí

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Martí, José Julián

 

(J. J. Martí y Pérez). Born Jan. 28, 1853, in Havana; died May 19, 1895, in Dos Rios, Oriente Province. Cuban revolutionary and writer, ideologist and organizer of the liberation struggle against Spanish rule. The national hero of Cuba. The son of a soldier.

From the age of 16, Marti devoted himself to revolutionary activity. In 1870 he was arrested and exiled to Spain, where he studied philosophy, literature, and law at the universities of Madrid and Zaragoza. He moved to Mexico in 1875 and then to Guatemala. Returning to Cuba in 1879, Marti helped prepare the uprising against the Spanish yoke, for which he was again exiled to Spain. From 1880 to 1895 he lived in the USA, where he was a correspondent for Latin American newspapers and wrote articles that exposed the aggressive plans and policy of the ruling circles of the USA. Marti started preparing a new uprising in Cuba. In 1892 he brought separate emigre organizations together in the Cuban Revolutionary Party (CRP), which united representatives of various social strata and which played a decisive role in organizing the national liberation uprising that broke out in Cuba on Feb. 24, 1895. The central organ of the CRP was the newspaper Patria, founded by Marti. In April 1895, Marti returned to Cuba to participate directly in the uprising; a month later he died in combat with the Spaniards.

Marti combined practical revolutionary activity with a profound theoretical examination of problems of the revolution and national independence. He warned of the danger that the North American monopolies presented to the independence of the Latin American countries. Marti’s philosophical ideas underwent an evolution from eclecticism and fascination with the philosophy of K. Krause, as expressed in Marti’s Philosophical Ideas, to materialist monism.

Marti’s literary heritage is almost entirely connected with his public activity. His first work, the romantic drama Abdala(1869), is infused with a protest against slavery. In the poetry collections Ismaelillo (1882), Simple Verses (1891), and Free Verses (published in 1913), Marti celebrated simple and sincere human feelings, contrasting them with the world of evil and injustice. Marti’s innovative lyric poetry anticipated the Latin American poetry of the 20th century. His publicistic legacy reflects his rich life and his revolutionary democratic and philosophical and social ideas.

WORKS

Obras completas, vols. 1-27. Havana, 1963-65.
In Russian translation:
Izbrannoe. Introduction by V. Stolbov. Moscow, 1956.
[Poetry.] In the collection Kubinskaia poeziia. Moscow, 1959.
[Poetry.] In Soldaty svobody. Moscow, 1963.
Severoamerikanskie stseny. Introduction by V. Stolbov. Moscow, 1963.

REFERENCES

Roig de Leuchsenring, E. Khose Martiantiimperialist. Moscow, 1962. (Translated from Spanish.)
Vizen, L. Khose Marti. Moscow, 1964.
Ternovoi, O. Khose Marti. Moscow, 1966.
Marinello, J. Kh. Marti—ispano-amerikanskii pisatel’. Moscow, 1964.
Shishkina, V. I. Sotsial’no-politicheskie vzgliady Khose Marti. Moscow, 1969.
Martinez-Estrada, E. Martí revolucionario, vol. 1. Havana, 1967.

E. L. NITOBURG and V. S. STOLBOV

References in periodicals archive ?
Leyenda: En una imagen de enero de 2017, Monumento a Jose Marti, en Santiago de Cuba.
C'est avec ees mot que Marlene Vazquez Perez resume dans cet article la passion du personnage cubain Jose Marti pour la pensee et l'oeuvre de Simon Bolivar, la meme qui lui avait fait dire a ses jeunes lecteurs dans L age d'Or : "tous les americains doivent aimer Bolivar comme un pere".
Trincheras de ideas valen mas que trincheras de piedra", decia Jose Marti.
But the inveterate independenista found purpose in the last decade of his life by working at the Cuban National Archive and in other ways preserving the legacy of Jose Marti and other patriotas.
Sin embargo, es durante su estadia en los Estados Unidos, cuando Jose Marti establece vinculos entre el hombre, la naturaleza y la historia en sus producciones a partir de un concepto clave: el de "hombre natural" que retoma del discurso filosofico de Ralph W.
figuras de Jose Marti a partir de su vida, de su obra y de las distintas
The award is given every year to commemorate Jose Marti (1853-95), who was a poet and a Cuban national hero leading the country's independence movement against Spain in the 19th century.
For that purpose, she studies the works of Cuban Jose Marti during the Gilded Age (1880-1895).
Durante esta etapa comenzo su fructifera relacion con la Universidad Michoacana gracias a la Catedra Jose Marti, que le permitio realizar dilatadas estancias de investigacion en Morelia, donde impartio diversas conferencias y seminarios especializados a las primeras generaciones de historiadores michoacanos.
Se obtiene una relacion de las instituciones e investigadores dedicados a indagar sobre la vida y obra de Jose Marti, se determinan los sectores tematicos y aspectos que caracterizan a cada uno, se ofrecen las disponibilidades de conocimientos, ademas se determinan los vinculos existentes entre los actores institucionales y personales y se proponen nuevos espacios de interaccion, sobre la base del analisis e interpretacion de los resultados, se proponen las caracteristicas de la red y sus principales actividades.
WHEN JOSE MARTI and five other insurgents sailed from the Dominican Republic to invade Cuba on 1 April 1895, they only expected a two-day cruise.
Swier closely examines the ways in which authors including Romulo Gallegos, Jose Marti, and Miguel Angel Asturias use what she calls "gender troping" to illustrate unequal power relations in national politics.