San Martín, José de

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San Martín, José de

(hōsā` thā sän märtēn`), 1778–1850, South American revolutionist, b. Yapeyú, in present-day Argentina. After service with the Spanish army in Europe, he returned (1812) to join the revolution against Spain in his native country. He superseded Manuel BelgranoBelgrano, Manuel
, 1770–1820, Argentine revolutionist. Important as a political figure, he was appointed secretary of the commercial tribunal of Buenos Aires in 1794. He vigorously championed popular education and proposed economic reforms.
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 in command of the army against royalist forces in Upper Peru and decided, after some experience, that the attack on the royalist stronghold could best be made through Chile. After training his troops at Mendoza, San Martín accomplished the difficult feat of leading an army across the Andes through Los Patos and Uspallata passes. Ably seconded by Bernardo O'HigginsO'Higgins, Bernardo
, 1778–1842, South American revolutionary and ruler (1817–23) of Chile; illegitimate son of Ambrosio O'Higgins. He was chosen in 1813 to replace José Miguel Carrera as revolutionary leader.
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, he defeated (1817) the Spanish at Chacabuco. San Martín was offered the governorship of Chile, which he refused. After a setback at Cancha Rayada, the patriots defeated (1818) the royalists at Maipú and completed the liberation of Chile. San Martín, with the aid of Thomas Cochrane (earl of DundonaldDundonald, Thomas Cochrane, 10th earl of
, 1775–1860, British naval commander. He served in the Napoleonic Wars, executing his assignments with a boldness and originality sometimes too radical for the admiralty.
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), prepared to conquer Peru. Lima was taken (1821), and San Martín became protector of Peru. When Simón BolívarBolívar, Simón
, 1783–1830, South American revolutionary who led independence wars in the present nations of Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia.
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 advanced with the intention of driving out the Spanish, San Martín interviewed (July, 1822) him at Guayaquil and then resigned, leaving the conquest of Peru to Bolívar. San Martín retired from public life and in 1824 went to Europe, where he spent his remaining years in exile and comparative poverty.

Bibliography

See B. Mitre, The Emancipation of South America (tr. 1893, repr. 1969); J. C. Metford, San Martín the Liberator (1950, repr. 1971).

San Martín, José de

 

Born Feb. 25, 1778, in Yapeyú, Corrientes Province; died Aug. 17, 1850, in Boulogne-sur-Mer, France. A leader of the War of Independence of the Spanish-American Colonies of 1810–26. National hero of Argentina. General.

The son of a captain in the Spanish army, San Martin was educated in a military school in Madrid. From 1808 to 1812 he fought against France in the Spanish war of national liberation. In 1812 he returned to his native land. In 1814 he was appointed commander of the Army of the North, the army of the Argentine patriots fighting against the Spanish colonial authorities. In 1816, after the United Provinces of La Plata (from 1826, known as Argentina) were proclaimed independent, he became commander in chief of the Army of the Andes and led it over the difficult crossing of the Andes into Chile. In the Battle of Cha-cabuco in February 1817 and in the Battle of Maipù in April 1818, he defeated the Spanish troops, thereby winning independence for Chile. In 1820 and 1821 he marched into Peru, drove out the Spanish, and proclaimed Peru’s independence. As protector, he headed the first government of Peru, putting through a number of reforms that strengthened the country’s economic and military positions. After a meeting in Guayaquil in July 1822 with Simón Bolívar, in which Bolívar rejected San Martin’s proposal for joint action by their two armies, San Martin retired from military and political life and left for France.

REFERENCES

Ocherki istorii Argentiny. Moscow, 1961. Pages 99–114.
Mitre, B. Historia de San Martín. Buenos Aires, 1950.
Florit, E. San Martín y la causa de América. Buenos Aires, 1967.
References in periodicals archive ?
En Canto general, Neruda trata de capturar el encuentro de Bolivar y Jose de San Martin en el que, segun nuestra mitologia continental, se pierde la oportunidad de unificar a toda Sudamerica.
But because of suspicions about Chavez's motive, other Latin American rulers compelled him to include in the list of ALBA's inspirers such eminent figures as Jose Marti, Antonio Jose de Sucre, Bernardo O'Higgins, Jose de San Martin and Augusto Cesar Sandino.
Sin embargo, si miramos aquellos acontecimientos desde una perspectiva desprovista de condicionamientos patriarcales, podemos afirmar que sin ellas no hubiese sido posible la independencia, tal como lo expresaron en su dia los considerados Libertadores de America: Simon Bolivar y Jose de San Martin.
Because of suspicions about its ulterior motive, however, other Latin American rulers have compelled Caracas under Chavez to include in the list of ALBA's inspirers such figures as Jose Marti, Antonio Jose de Sucre, Bernardo O'Higgins, Jose de San Martin and Augusto Cesar Sandino.
En ese escenario, la figura de Jose de San Martin consiguio erigirse entre sus contemporaneos y paso a encabezar la piramide de los padres fundadores de la patria, sobre la base de una serie de operaciones politicas e intelectuales que si bien fue tributaria de las iniciativas promovidas por los romanticos argentinos (y latinoamericanos) en el siglo XIX, tambien fue resultado de sucesivas intervenciones eruditas y oficiales que sedimentaron imagenes y valoraciones sensiblemente distintas de las acunadas por las narrativas nacionalistas decimononicas.
Le sucedio en el cargo el general Jose de la Serna, quien despues de cuatro anos de ferrea resistencia frente a los ejercitos de los generales Jose de San Martin y Simon Bolivar terminaria por reconocer la independencia del Peru.
En sentido estricto, la obsesion roigeana por vincular lo local con lo universal no solo hallaba su razon de ser en la solida tradicion de los filosofos clasicos en la que abrevo como estudiante, y profesor en la Universidad Nacional de Cuyo; encontraba sus raices tambien en una dilatada genealogia familiar que habia contribuido decididamente a forjar nuevos estilos esteticos en la provincia pintando primero la cultura del desierto, y de los huarpes, para luego poner color y forma al epico paisaje de los Andes y al heroe de la epopeya libertaria, Jose de San Martin.
In an essay that represents especially well the book's movement away from the mythic modes of nationalist history, Ana Maria Stuven proposes a critical revision to the hagiographic narrative of Chilean national heroes such as Jose de San Martin and Bernardo O'Higgins in order to consider how these figures fit into a more complicated narrative of national identity construction.
In an article that contemporary Axgentine writer Martin Kohan wrote about Jorge Luis Borges' short story, "Guayaquil" he affirms that the military legacy of Jose de San Martin functions as one of the founding myths of Argentine identity ("El enigma" 35).
Este libro, de corte mas divulgativo y accesible al gran publico que estrictamente academico, se acerca y repasa las vidas y acciones de cinco personajes de las independencias de las colonias espanolas en Sudamerica: Francisco de Miranda, Manuel Belgrano, Bernardo O'Higgins, Simon Bolivar y Jose de San Martin.
Este "nuevo" pais fue reconocido por los generales Simon Bolivar, Jose de San Martin y Melchor de Aymerich, celebrando tratados tanto con Bolivar como con San Martin.